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EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM

EN 1993-1-11

October 2006

ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.10; 93.040

Supersedes ENV 1993-2:1997
Incorporating corrigendum April 2009

English Version

Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-11: Design of structures with tension components

Eurocode 3 - Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-11: Calcul des structures à câbles ou éléments tendus Eurocode 3 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 1-11: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Tragwerken mit Zuggliedern aus Stahl

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 January 2006.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

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© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 1993-1-11:2006: E

1

Contents

Page
1 General 4
  1.1 Scope 4
  1.2 Normative references 5
  1.3 Terms and definitions 6
  1.4 Symbols 7
2 Basis of design 8
  2.1 General 8
  2.2 Requirements 8
  2.3 Actions 9
  2.4 Design situations and partial factors 11
3 Material 11
  3.1 Strength of steels and wires 11
  3.2 Modulus of elasticity 11
  3.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion 13
  3.4 Cutting to length of Group B tension components 14
  3.5 Lengths and fabrication tolerances 14
  3.6 Friction coefficients 14
4 Durability of wires, ropes and strands 14
  4.1 General 14
  4.2 Corrosion protection of individual wires 15
  4.3 Corrosion protection of the interior of Group B tension components 15
  4.4 Corrosion protection of the exterior of Group B tension components 15
  4.5 Corrosion protection of Group C tension components 16
  4.6 Corrosion protection at connections 16
5 Structural analysis 16
  5.1 General 16
  5.2 Transient construction phase 16
  5.3 Persistent design situation during service 17
  5.4 Non-linear effects from deformations 17
6 Ultimate limit states 18
  6.1 Tension rod systems 18
  6.2 Prestressing bars and Group B and C components 18
  6.3 Saddles 19
  6.4 Clamps 22
7 Serviceability limit states 23
  7.1 Serviceability criteria 23
  7.2 Stress limits 23
8 Vibrations of cables 24
  8.1 General 24
  8.2 Measures to limit vibrations of cables 25
  8.3 Estimation of risks 25
9 Fatigue 25
  9.1 General 25
  9.2 Fluctuating axial loads 26
Annex A (informative) Product requirements for tension components 27
Annex B (informative) Transport, storage, handling 30 2
Annex C (informative) Glossary 31

Foreword

This European Standard EN 1993-1-11, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures: Part 1-11 Design of structures with tension components, has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 « Structural Eurocodes », the Secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a National Standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2007 and conflicting National Standards shall be withdrawn at latest by March 2010.

Image This Eurocode partially supersedes ENV 1993-2, Annex A. Image

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the National Standard Organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

National annex for EN 1993-1-11

This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. The National Standard implementing EN 1993-1-11 should have a National Annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of tension components to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1993-1-11 through:

3

1 General

1.1 Scope

  1. prEN1993-1-1 l gives design rules for structures with tension components made of steel, which, due to their connections with the structure, are adjustable and replaceable see Table 1.1.

    NOTE: Due to the requirement of adjustability and replaceability such tension components are generally prefabricated products delivered to site and installed into the structure. Tension components that are not adjustable or replaceable, e.g. air spun cables of suspension bridges, or for externally post-tensioned bridges, are outside the scope of this part. However, rules of this standard may be applicable.

  2. This standard also gives rules for determining the technical requirements for prefabricated tension components for assessing their safety, serviceability and durability.
    Table 1.1: Groups of tension components
    Group Main tension element Component
    A rod (bar) tension rod (bar) system, prestressing bar
    B circular wire spiral strand rope
    circular and Z-wires fully locked coil rope
    circular wire and stranded wire strand rope
    C circular wire parallel wire strand (PWS)
    circular wire bundle of parallel wires
    seven wire (prestressing) strand bundle of parallel strands

    NOTE 1: Group A products in general have a single solid round cross section connected to end terminations by threads. They are mainly used as

    NOTE 2: Group B products are composed of wires which are anchored in sockets or other end terminations and are fabricated primarily in the diameter range of 5 mm to 160 mm, see EN 12385-2.

    Spiral strand ropes are mainly used as

    Fully locked coil ropes are fabricated in the diameter range of 20 mm to 1 80 mm and are mainly used as

    4

    Structural strand ropes are mainly used as

    NOTE 3: Group C products need individual or collective anchoring and appropriate protection.

    Bundles of parallel wires are mainly used as stay cables, main cables for suspension bridges and external tendons.

    Bundles of parallel strands are mainly used as stay cables for composite and steel bridges.

  1. The types of termination dealt with in this part for Group B and C products are

    NOTE: For terminology see Annex C.

1.2 Normative references

  1. This European Standard incorporates dated and undated reference to other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments or revisions to any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN 10138 Prestressing steels
Part 1 General requirements
Part 2 Wires
Part 3 Strands
Part 4 Bars
EN 10244 Steel wire and wire products - Non-ferrous metallic coatings on steel wire
Part 1 General requirements
Part 2 Zinc and zinc alloy coatings
Part 3 Aluminium coatings
EN 10264 Steel wire and wire products - Steel wire for ropes
Part 1 General requirements
Part 2 Cold drawn non-alloyed steel wire for ropes for general applications
Part 3 Cold drawn and cold profiled non alloyed steel wire for high tensile applications
Part 4 Stainless steel wires
EN 12385 Steel wire ropes - safety
Part 1 General requirements
Part 2 Definitions, designation and classification 5
Part 3 Information for use and maintenance
Part 4 Stranded ropes for general lifting applications
Part 10 Spiral ropes for general structural applications
EN 13411 Terminations for steel wire ropes - safety
Part 3 Ferrules and ferrule-securing
Part 4 Metal and resin socketing
Part 5 U-bolt wire rope grips

1.3 Terms and definitions

  1. For the purpose of this European Standard the following terms and definitions apply.

1.3.1
strand

an element of rope normally consisting of an assembly of wires of appropriate shape and dimensions laid helically in the same or opposite direction in one or more layers around a centre

1.3.2
strand rope

an assembly of several strands laid helically in one or more layers around a core (single layer rope) or centre (rotation-resistant or parallel-closed rope)

1.3.3
spiral rope

an assembly of a minimum of two layers of wires laid helically over a central wire

1.3.4
spiral strand rope

spiral rope comprising only round wires

1.3.5
fully locked coil rope

spiral rope having an outer layer of fully locked Z-shaped wires

1.3.6
fill factor f

the ratio of the sum of the nominal metallic cross-sectional areas of all the wires in a rope (A) and the circumscribed area (Au) of the rope based on its nominal diameter (d)

1.3.7
spinning loss factor k

reduction factor for rope construction included in the breaking force factor K

1.3.8
breaking force factor (K)

an empirical factor used in the determination of minimum breaking force of a rope and obtained as follows:

Image

where

f is the fill factor for the rope
k is the spinning loss factor

NOTE: k-factors for the more common rope classes and constructions are given in the appropriate part of EN 12385.

6

1.3.9
minimum breaking force (Fmin)

minimum breaking force which should be obtained as follows:

Image

where

d is the diameter of the rope in mm
K is the breaking force factor
Rr is the rope grade in N/mm2

1.3.10
rope grade (Rr)

a level of requirement of breaking force which is designated by a number (e.g. 1770 [N/mm2], 1960 [N/mm2])

NOTE: Rope grades do not necessarily correspond to the tensile strength grades of the wires in the rope.

1.3.11
unit weight (w)

the self weight of rope based on the metallic cross-section (Am) and the unit length taking account of the densities of steel and the corrosion protection system

1.3.12
cable

main tension component in a structure (e.g. a stay cable bridge) which may consist of a rope, strand or bundles of parallel wires or strands

1.4 Symbols

  1. For this standard the symbols given in 1.6 of EN 1993-1-1 and 1.6 of EN 1993-1-9 apply.
  2. Additional symbols are defined where they first occur.

    NOTE: Symbols may have various meanings.

7

2 Basis of design

2.1 General

  1. P The design of structures with tension components shall be in accordance with the general rules given in EN 1990.
  2. The supplementary provisions for tension components given in this standard should also be applied.
  3. For improved durability the following exposure classes may be applied:
    Table 2.1 : Exposure classes
    Fatigue action Corrosion action
    not exposed externally exposed externally
    no significant fatigue action class l class 2
    mainly axial fatigue action class 3 class 4
    axial and lateral fatigue actions (wind & rain) class 5
  4. Connections of tension components to the structure should be replaceable and adjustable.

2.2 Requirements

  1. P The following limit states shall be considered in designing tension components:
    1. ULS: Applied axial loads shall not exceed the design tension resistance, see section 6.
    2. SLS: Stress and strain levels in the component shall not exceed the limiting values, see section 7.

      NOTE: For durability reasons, serviceability checks may govern over ULS-verifications.

    3. Fatigue: Stress ranges from axial load fluctuations and wind and rain induced oscillations shall not exceed the limiting values, see sections 0 and 0.

      NOTE: Due to the difficulties in modelling the excitation characteristics of tension elements, SLS checks should be carried out in addition to fatigue checks.

  2. To prevent the likely de-tension of a tension component (i.e. the stress reaching below zero and causing uncontrolled stability or fatigue or damages to structural or non structural parts) and for certain types of structures, the tension components are preloaded by deformations imposed on the structure (prestressing).

    In such cases permanent actions, which should consist of actions from gravity loads “G” and prestress “P”, should be considered as a single permanent action “G+P” to which the relevant partial factors γGi should be applied, see section 5.

    NOTE: For other materials and methods of construction other rules for the combination of “G” and “P” may apply.

  3. Any attachments to prefabricated tension components, such as saddles or clamps, should be designed for ultimate limit states and serviceability limit states using the breaking strength or proof strength of cables as actions, see section 6. For fatigue see EN 1993-1-9.

    NOTE: Fatigue action on the ropes is governed by the radius in the saddle or anchorage area (see Figure 6.1 for minimum radius).

8

2.3 Actions

2.3.1 Self weight of tension components

  1. The characteristic value of the self weight of tension components and their attachments should be determined from the cross-sectional area and the density of the materials unless data are given in the relevant parts of EN 12385.
  2. Image For spiral strand ropes, fully locked coil ropes or circular wire strand ropes the nominal self weight gk may be calculated as follows: Image

    gk = w Am     (2.1)

    where

    Am is the cross-section in mm2 of the metallic components
    w is the unit weight taking into account the density of steel including the corrosion protection system, see Table 2.2
  3. Am may be determined from

    Image

    where

    d is the external diameter of rope or strand in mm, including any sheathing for corrosion protection
    f is the fill-factor, see Table 2.2
    Table 2.2: Unit weight wand fill-factors f
      Fill factor f Image
    Core wires + 1 layer z- wires Core wires + 2 layer z-wires Core wires + >2 layer z-wires Number of wire layers around core wire
    1 2 3-6 >6
    1 Spiral strand ropes       0,77 0,76 0,75 0,73 830
    2 Fully locked coil ropes 0,81 0,84 0,88         830
    3 Circular wire strand ropes       0,56 930
  4. For parallel wire ropes or parallel strand ropes the metallic cross-section may be determined from

    Am = n am     (2.3)

    where

    n is the number of identical wires or strands of which the rope is made
    am is the cross-section of a wire (derived from its diameter) or a (prestressing) strand (derived from the appropriate standard)
  5. For group C tension components the self weight should be determined from the steel weight of the individual wires or strands and the weight of the protective material (HDPE, wax etc.)

2.3.2 Wind actions

  1. The wind effects to be taken into account should include:
9

2.3.3 Ice loads

  1. For ice loading see Annex B to EN 1993-3-1.

2.3.4 Thermal actions

  1. The thermal actions to be taken into account should include the effects of differential temperatures between the cables and the structure.
  2. For cables exposed externally the actions from differential temperature should be taken into account, see EN 1991-1-5.

2.3.5 Prestressing

  1. The preloads in cables should be such that, when all the permanent actions are applied, the structure adopts the required geometric profile and stress distribution.
  2. Facilities for prestressing and adjusting the cables should be provided and the characteristic value of the preload should be taken as that required to achieve the required profile in (1) at the limit state under consideration.
  3. If adjustment of the cables is not intended to be earned out the effects of the variation of preloads should be considered in the design of the structure.

2.3.6 Replacement and loss of tension components

  1. The replacement of at least one tension component should be taken into account in the design as a transient design situation.

    NOTE: The National Annex may define the transient loading conditions and partial factors for replacement.

  2. Where required a sudden loss of any one tension component should be taken into account in the design as an accidental design situation.

    NOTE 1: The National Annex may define where such an accidental design situation should apply and also give the protection requirements and loading conditions, e.g. for hangers of bridges.

    NOTE 2: In the absence of a rigorous analysis the dynamic effect of a sudden removal may conservatively be allowed for by using the additional action effect Ed:

    Image Ed = k (Ed2 − Ed1) Image

    where

    k = 1,5
    Ed1 represents the design effects with all cables intact;
    Ed2 represents the design effects with the relevant cable removed.

2.3.7 Fatigue loads

  1. For fatigue loads see EN 1991.
10

2.4 Design situations and partial factors

2.4.1 Transient design situation during the construction phase

  1. For the construction phase the partial factor for permanent loads may be amended to suit the particular design situation and limit state model.

    NOTE: The National Annex may define the partial factor γGi for the construction phase. Recommended values γGi are:

    γG = 1,10 for a short time period (only a few hours) for the installation of first strand in strand by strand installations
    γG = 1,20 for the installation of other strands
    γG = 1,00 for favourable effects.

Image 2.4.2 Persistent design situations during service Image

  1. For ULS, SLS and fatigue verifications partial factors γM may be based on

NOTE: Appropriate values for γM are given in section 6.

3 Material

3.1 Strength of steels and wires

  1. The characteristic values fy and fu for structural steel and f0.2 or f0.1 and fu for wires should be taken from the relevant technical specifications.

    NOTE 1: For steel see EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1993-1-4.

    NOTE 2: For wires see EN 10264, Part 1 to Part 4.

    NOTE 3: For ropes see EN 12385, Part 4 and Part 10.

    NOTE 4: For terminations see EN 13411-3.

    NOTE 5: For strands see EN 10138-3.

    NOTE 6: The National Annex may give a maximum value for fu for durability reasons. The following values are recommended:

    steel wires round wires: nominal tensile strength: 1770 N/mm2
      Z-wires: nominal tensile strength: 1570 N/mm2
    stainless steel wires: round wires: nominal tensile strength: 1450N/mm2

3.2 Modulus of elasticity

3.2.1 Group A tension components

  1. The modulus of elasticity for Group A tension components may be taken as E = 210000 N/mm2; for systems made of stainless steels see EN 1993-1-4.

3.2.2 Group B tension components

  1. The modulus of elasticity for Group B tension components should be derived from tests. 11

    NOTE 1: The modulus of elasticity is dependant on the stress level and whether the cable has been prestretched and cyclically loaded and unloaded.

    NOTE 2: The tension stiffness of the cable for tension components of Group B and C may be determined by multiplying the modulus of elasticity by the metallic cross section Am.

  2. The secant modulus should be used as the modulus of elasticity for structural analysis for persistent design situations during service. Characteristic values should be obtained for each cable type and diameter and should be determined after a sufficient number of (at least 5) load cycles between Finf and Fsup to ensure stable values are obtained, where Finf and Fsup are the minimum and maximum cable forces respectively under the characteristic permanent and variable actions.
  3. For short test samples (sample length ≤ 10 × lay length) the value of creep obtained will be smaller than for long cables.

    NOTE 1: In the absence of more accurate values this effect may be taken into account for cutting to length by applying an additional shortening of 0,15 mm/m.

    NOTE 2: When test results are not available, nominal values of moduli of elasticity for use as first estimates are given in Table 3.1. For further information see EN 10138.

    Table 3.1: Modulus of elasticity EQ corresponding to variable loads Q
      High strength tension component EQ [kN/mm2]
    steel wires stainless steel wires
    l Spiral strand ropes 150 ± 10 130 ± 10
    2 Fully locked coil ropes 160 ± 10 -
    3 Strand wire ropes with CWR 100 ± 10 90 ± 10
    4 Strand wire ropes with CF 80 ± 10 -
    5 Bundle of parallel wires 205 ± 5 -
    6 Bundle of parallel strands 195 ± 5 -

    NOTE 3: The nominal values of the modulus of elasticity E for fully locked coil ropes are given in Figure 3.1. These estimated values apply to cyclic loading range between 30 % and 40 % of the calculated breaking strength Fuk.

    12

    Figure 3.1: Modulus of elasticity Efor non pre-stretched fully locked coil ropes for bridges

    Figure 3.1: Modulus of elasticity E for non pre-stretched fully locked coil ropes for bridges

    NOTE 4: Non pre-stretched Group B cables exhibit both elastic and permanent deformations when subjected to static loading. It is recommended that such cables are pre-stretched before or after installation by cyclic loading up to a maximum of 0,45σuk. For cutting to length such cables should be pre-stretched with a precision related to the facilities for in-situ adjustment.

    NOTE 5: For Figure 3.1 the following assumptions apply:

3.2.3 Group C tension components

  1. The modulus of elasticity for Group C tension components may be taken from EN 10138 or Table 3.1.

3.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion

  1. The coefficient of thermal expansion should be taken as

    αT = 12 × 10-6 per °C     for steel wires     (3.1)

    αT = 16 × 10-6 per °C     for stainless steel wires

13

3.4 Cutting to length of Group B tension components

  1. Strands may only be marked to length only for cutting at a prescribed cutting load.
  2. For exact cutting to length the following data should be considered:

3.5 Lengths and fabrication tolerances

  1. The total length of the cable and all measuring points for the attachment of saddles and clamps should be marked under a defined preload.

    NOTE: The provisions of additional control markings allow for later checks of the exact length after parts have been installed.

  2. The fabrication tolerances should be taken into account after pre-stretching and cyclic loading and unloading.
  3. When structures are sensitive to deviations from nominal geometrical values (e.g. by creep), facilities for adjustments should be provided.

3.6 Friction coefficients

  1. The friction coefficient between fully locked coil cables and steel attachments (clamps, saddles, fittings) should be determined from tests.

    NOTE: The friction forces may be reduced by reduction of the diameter if tension is increased.

  2. The friction coefficient for other types of cables should also be determined from tests, see Annex A.

4 Durability of wires, ropes and strands

4.1 General

  1. For Group B and C tension components with exposure classes 2, 4 and 5 according to Table 2.1 the corrosion protection system should be as follows:
    1. Individual wires should be protected against corrosion;
    2. The rope interior should be protected to stop the ingress of moisture;
    3. The outer surface should be protected against corrosion.
  2. Group C tension components as defined in Table 1.1 should have two layers of corrosion protection systems with an interface or inner filler between the two systems. 14
  3. At clamps and anchorages additional corrosion protection should be applied to prevent water penetration.
  4. For transport, storage and handling, see Annex B.

4.2 Corrosion protection of individual wires

  1. Each steel wire within group B and C tension components should be coated with either zinc or zinc alloy compound.
  2. For group B tension components zinc or zinc alloy coating for round wires should be in accordance with EN 10264-2, class A. For shaped wires coating should comply with EN 10264-3, class A.

    NOTE 1: Generally Z-shaped wires are galvanized with a thicker coaling thickness of up to 300g/m2 to allow for a reduction in thickness on sharp corners.

    NOTE 2: Wires coaled with a Zn95A15 alloy have a much improved corrosion protection than galvanizing with zinc of the same coating thickness. Round and Z-shaped wires can be coaled with a Zn95A15 basis weight.

  3. For Group C tension components, coating of wires should comply with EN 10138.

4.3 Corrosion protection of the interior of Group B tension components

  1. All interior voids within cables should be filled with an active or passive inner filling that should not be displaced by water, heat or vibration.

    NOTE 1: Active fillers are polyurethane-oil based with zinc dust paint.

    NOTE 2: Passive inner fillers can be permanent elastic-plastic wax or aluminium flake in hydrocarbon resin.

    NOTE 3: The inner filling applied during the manufacture of the tension components can extrude when the component is loaded (bleeding), so that other corrosion protection measures should be timed accordingly.

    NOTE 4: The inner filling should be selected to avoid any incompatibility with the other corrosion protection measures being applied to the cable.

4.4 Corrosion protection of the exterior of Group B tension components

  1. After construction additional corrosion protection measures should be applied to compensate for any damage incurred and for the loss of zinc.

    NOTE: This protection may consist of polyethylene sheathing or zinc rich paint. The minimum thickness of polyethylene should be equal to the outer rope diameter divided by 15 and should not be less than 3 mm.

    The paint system should comprise a minimum of:

    - 2 × 50 μm polyurethane with zinc dust prime coats;
    - 2 × 125 μm polyurethane with iron mica finishing coats.
  2. Cables with stainless steel wires and stainless steel terminations without additional corrosion protection should comply with the relevant corrosion resistance class.

    NOTE 1: The National Annex may specify the corrosion resistance classes for stainless steel.

    NOTE 2: Zn95A15-coated wires provide up to 3 times better resistance compared with heavy zinc coated wires under identical conditions.

15

4.5 Corrosion protection of Group C tension components

  1. Group C tension components should normally be sheathed using steel or polyethylene tube complying to relevant standards with the space between the inside of the sheath and the cable filled with a suitable corrosion protection compound or cement grout.
  2. Alternatively polyethylene sheathing extruded directly or epoxy coating over the individual strands or cables may be used.
  3. The sheaths used for the cables should be made Image impermeable to water Image at the connections to the anchorages. The joints should be designed so that they do not break, when the sheath is subjected to tension.
  4. Voids should be filled with continuous hydrophobic materials with no detrimental effects on the tension components. Alternatively, the cable may be protected by circulation of the dry air within the sheath.

    NOTE 1: Continuous hydrophobic materials are soft fillers, such as grease, wax or soft resin, or hard fillers, such as cement. The suitability of the fillers should be proved by tests. The choice of the acceptable fillers may be specified in the National Annex.

    NOTE 2: Corrosion protection of main cables of suspension bridges requires a special approach. After compacting the main cable into the required cross-sectional area the cable is closely wrapped with tensioned galvanized soft wire laid in a suitable paste sufficient to fill completely the voids between the outer cable wires and the wrapping wire. After removal of the surplus paste from outside of the wrapping wire the zinc-coated surface is cleaned and painted. Special treatment is required for suspension bridge cable anchorages where the wrapping wire is removed. Dehumidification of the air around the wires is a common method of protection.

4.6 Corrosion protection at connections

  1. Provision should be made to prevent rainwater running down the cable from entering the clamps, saddles and anchorages.
  2. Cable structure connections should be sealed.

5 Structural analysis

5.1 General

  1. P The analysis shall be carried out for the limit states considered for the following design conditions:
    1. the transient construction phase
    2. the persistent service conditions after completion of construction.

5.2 Transient construction phase

  1. The construction process including forming cables, pre-stressing and the geometry of the structure should be planned such that the following conditions are attained:
  2. For compliance with control measures throughout the entire construction process (e.g. measurements of shape, gradients, deformations, frequencies or forces) all calculations should be carried out using characteristic values of permanent loads, imposed deformations and any imposed actions.
  3. Where ultimate limit states during pre-stressing are controlled by the differential effects of gravity loads “G” and prestress “P”, the partial factor γP to be applied to “P” should be defined for that situation. 16

    NOTE: The National Annex may define γP, the value of γP = 1,00 is recommended.

5.3 Persistent design situation during service

  1. For any persistent design situation during the service the permanent actions “G” from gravity and preloads or prestressing “P” should be combined in a single permanent action “G + P” corresponding to the permanent shape of the structure.
  2. For the verification of the serviceability limit states the action “G + P” should be included in the relevant combination of action. For the verification of the ultimate limit state EQU or STR (see EN 1990) the permanent actions “G + P” should be multiplied by the partial factor γG sup, when the effects of permanent action and of variable actions are adverse. If the permanent actions “G + P” are favourable they should be multiplied by the partial factor γG inf .

    NOTE: The National Annex may give guidance where outside the scope of EN 1993 the partial factor γG to “G + P” may be used.

  3. When nonlinear action effects from deformations are significant during service these effects should be taken into account, see 5.4.

5.4 Non-linear effects from deformations

5.4.1 General

  1. The effects of deformations from catenary effects and the shortening and lengthening of the components including the effects due to creep should be taken into account.

5.4.2 Catenary effects

  1. Catenary effects may be taken into account by using the effective modulus Et to each cable or its segment:

Image

E is the modulus of elasticity of the cable in N/mm2
w is the unit weight according to Table 2.2 in N/mm3
is the horizontal span of the cable in mm
σ is the stress in the cable in N/mm2. For situations according to 5.3 it is σG + P.

5.4.3 Effects of deformations on the structure

  1. For the 2nd order analysis the action effects due to variable loads should take into account the initial geometrical form of the structure due to the permanent loading “G + P” for a given temperature T0.
  2. For the 2nd order analysis at serviceability limit state the action effects should be determined using the characteristic load combination. These action effects may also be used for ultimate limit state verifications according to 7.2.
  3. For 2nd order analysis for the non-linear behaviour of structures (over-linear structural response) at the ultimate limit state the required permanent geometrical form of the structure at the reference temperature T0 should be combined with the stresses due to “γG (G + P)”. Design values of the variable actions γQ Qk1 + γQ ψ2 Qk2 may be applied together with the appropriate assumptions for the imperfection of the structure.

    NOTE: For γG see 5.3(2).

17

6 Ultimate limit states

6.1 Tension rod systems

  1. Tension rod systems should be designed for the ultimate limit state according to EN 1993-1-1 or EN 1993-1-4 depending on the type of steel used.

6.2 Pre-stressing bars and Group B and C components

  1. P For the ultimate limit state it shall be verified that

    Image

    where

    FEd is the design value of the axial rope force
    FRd is the design value of the tension resistance.
  2. The design value of the tension resistance FRd should be taken as follows:

    Image

    where

    Fuk is the characteristic value of the breaking strength,
    Fk is the characteristic value of the proof strength of the tension component as given in Table 6.1;
    γR is the partial factor.

    NOTE 1: Fuk corresponds to the characteristic value of the ultimate tensile strength.

    Image Table 6.1: Characteristic value of the proof strength Fk of tension components Image
    Group Relevant standard Image Fk Image
    A EN 10138-1 F0,1k *)
    B EN 10264 F0,2k
    C EN 10138-1 F0,1k
    *) For prestressing bars see EN 1993-1-1 and EN 1993-1-4

    NOTE 2: The check against Fk ensures that the component will remain elastic when the actions attain their design value. For components (e.g. fully locked coil ropes) where Image this check is not required.

    NOTE 3: By tests on delivery it is demonstrated that the experimental values Fuke and Fke satisfy the requirement

    Fuke > Fuk,
    Fke > Fk,

    see EN 12385, Part 1.

    NOTE 4: The partial factor γR may be specified in the National Annex. The value is dependent on whether or not measures are applied at the rope ends to reduce bending moments from cable rotations, Image see 7.1(2). Image The values for γR in Table 6.2 are recommended.

    18
    Table 6.2: Recommended γR − values
    Measures to minimise
    bending
    stresses at the anchorage
    γR
    Yes 0,90
    No l,00
  3. For prestressing bars and group C tension components the characteristic value of the breaking strength should be determined from:

    Fuk = Am fuk     (6.3)

    where

    Am is the metallic cross-section, see 2.3.1 ;
    fuk is the characteristic value of the tensile strength of bars, wires or (prestressing) strands according to the relevant standard.
  4. For group B tension components Fuk should be calculated as:

    Fuk = Fmin ke     (6.4)

    where Fmin is determined according to EN 12385-2 as:

    Image

    where

    K is the minimum breaking force factor taking account of the spinning loss;
    d is the nominal diameter of the rope in mm;
    Rr is the rope grade in N/mm2;
    ke is the loss factor given in Table 6.3 for some types of end terminations.

    NOTE: K, d, Rr are specified for all ropes in the EN 12385-2.

    Table 6.3: Loss factors ke
    Type of termination Loss factor ke
    Metal filled socket 1,0
    Resin filled socket 1,0
    Ferrule-secured eye 0,9
    Swaged socket 0,9
    U-bolt grip 0,8 *)
    *) For U-bolt grip a reduction of preload is possible.

6.3 Saddles

6.3.1 Geometrical conditions

  1. Where the saddle proportions meet the requirements given in Figure 6.1, (2) and (3), stresses due to curvature of wires may be neglected in the design. 19

    Figure 6.1: Bedding of a strand/rope over a saddle

    Figure 6.1: Bedding of a strand/rope over a saddle

    NOTE: Compliance with the requirements in (1) above will result in the breaking resistance of the strand and rope being reduced by not more than 3 %.

  2. The radius r1 of the saddle should not be less than the greater of 30d or r1 ≥ 400, where
    is the diameter of wire;
    d is the diameter of the cable;
    d’ is the contact width.
  3. The value of r1 may be reduced to 20d when the bedding of the rope on at least 60% of the diameter is coated with soft metal or zinc spray with a minimum thickness of l mm.
  4. Smaller radii may be used for spiral ropes where justified by tests.

    NOTE: The locations of Ty and T2 should be determined for the relevant load cases taking into account the movements of bearings and cables.

6.3.2 Slipping of cables over saddles

  1. To prevent slippages the following condition should be met:

    Image

    where

    FEd1 and FEd2 are the design values of the maximum and minimum force respectively on either side of the Image saddle; Image
    μ is the coefficient of friction between cable and saddle;
    α is the angle in radians, of the cable passing over the saddle;
    γM,fr is the partial factor for friction.

    NOTE: The partial factor γMfr may be given in the National Annex. The value γMfr = 1,65 is recommended.

    20
  2. If (1) is not satisfied, clamps should be provided to impart an additional radial clamping force Fr such that

    Image

    where

    k is normally as 2,0 where there is full friction developed between the saddle grooves and the clamp and Fr does not exceed the resistance of the cable to clamping forces, see 6.3.3, other k = 1,0;
    γM,fr is the partial factor for friction resistance.
  3. In determining Fr from preloaded bolts the following effects should be considered:
    1. long term creep;
    2. reduction of diameter if tension is increased;
    3. compaction/bedding down of cable or ovalisation;
    4. reduction of preload in clamp bolts by external forces;
    5. differential temperature.

6.3.3 Transverse pressure

  1. P The transverse pressure qEd due to the radial clamping force Fr shall be limited to

    Image

    where

    qEd = Image
    qRD = Image
    qRK   is the limiting value of the transverse pressure which shall be determined from tests;
    γM,bed   is the partial factor.

    NOTE: For calculating qRd the pressure from FEd1 need not be considered as it is covered by the rules in 6.3.1.

  2. In the absence of tests the limiting values of the transverse pressure qRk should be obtained from Table 6.4.

    NOTE 1: The use of the limiting values qRk with γMbed = 1,00 should lead to a reduction of not more than 3 % of the breaking strength of the cable.

    Table 6.4: Limiting values qRk
    Type of cable qRk [N/mm2]
    Steel clamps and saddles Cushioned clamps and saddles
    Fully locked coil rope 40 100
    Spiral strand rope 25 60

    NOTE 2: Cushioned clamps should have a layer of soft metal or sprayed zinc coating with a minimum thickness of 1 mm.

    21

6.3.4 Design of saddles

  1. Saddles should be designed for a cable force of k times the characteristic breaking strength Fuk of the cables.

    NOTE: The factor k may be specified in the National Annex. The value of k = 1,10 is recommended.

6.4 Clamps

6.4.1 Slipping of clamps

  1. P Where clamps transmit longitudinal forces to a cable and the parts (see Figure 6.2) are not mechanically keyed together, slipping shall be prevented by verifying

    Image

    where

    FEd|| is the component of external design load parallel to the cable;
    FEd is the component of external design load perpendicular to the cable;
    Fr is the radial clamping force considered that may be reduced by items in 0(3);
    μ is the coefficient of friction;
    γM,fr is the partial factor for friction.

    NOTE 1: The partial factor γM,fr may be specified in the National Annex. γM,fr = 1,65 is recommended.

    NOTE 2: Fr may be increased or reduced by external forces according to the manner in which they are applied to the cable clamp.

6.4.2 Transverse pressure

  1. The transverse pressure due to the application of the greater of FEd or FFd + Fr should meet the requirements of 6.3.3.

6.4.3 Design of clamps

  1. Clamps and their fittings connecting components such as hangers to a main cable should be designed for a notional force equal to 1,15 times the Image characteristic value of the proof strength Image Fk of the secondary components clamped, see Figure 6.2. 22

    Figure 6.2: Clamp

    Figure 6.2: Clamp

    Image NOTE: Fk is not directly related to ULS. By the use of Fk capacity design (see EN 1993-1-1,1.5.8) is applied. Image

7 Serviceability limit states

7.1 Serviceability criteria

  1. The following serviceability criteria should be considered.
    1. Deformations or vibrations;
    2. Elastic service conditions.

    NOTE 1: Limits for deformations or vibrations may result in a stiffness requirement governed by the structural system, the dimensions and the preloading of high strength tension components, and by the slipping resistance of attachments.

    NOTE 2: Limits to retain elastic behaviour and durability are related to maximum and minimum values of stresses for serviceability load combinations.

  2. Bending stresses in the anchorage zone may be reduced by suitable measures (e.g. neoprene pads for transverse loading).

7.2 Stress limits

  1. Limiting stress may be specified for the characteristic load combination for the following purposes:
  2. Stress limits should be related to the breaking strength as follows:

    Image

see equation (6.3).

23

NOTE 1: The National Annex may give values for stress limits fconst, and fSLS. Recommended values for stress limits fconst, are given in Table 7.1 for the construction phase and for stress limits fsls Table 7.2 for service conditions.

Table 7.1: Stress limits fconst for the construction phase
Stage of installation fconst.
First tension components for only a few hours 0,60 σuk
After instalment of other tension components 0,55 σuk

NOTE 2: The stress limits follow from

Image

with

γR × γF = l,0 × 1,10 = 1,10 for short term situations

γR × γF = 1,0 × 1,20 = 1,20 for long term situations

Table 7.2: Stress limits fSLS for service conditions
Loading conditions fSLS
Fatigue design including bending stresses *) 0,50 σuk
Fatigue design without bending stresses 0,45 σuk
*) Bending stresses may be reduced by detailing measures, see Image 7.1 (2). Image

NOTE 3: The stress limits follow from

Image

with γR × γF = 0,9 × 1,48 = 1,33 with bending stresses
  γR × γF = 1,0 × 1,48 = 1,48 without bending stresses
where γFγQ = 1,50 ≈ 1,48

NOTE 4: The stress limit fSLS = 0,45 σuk is used for testing, see Annex A.

8 Vibrations of cables

8.1 General

  1. For cables exposed externally (e.g. stay cables) any wind-induced vibrations during and after erection and their impact on safety should be checked.
  2. Aerodynamic forces on the cable may be caused by:
    1. buffeting (from turbulence in the air flow)
    2. vortex shedding (from von Karman vortexes in the wake behind the cable)
    3. galloping (self induction)
    4. wake galloping (fluid-elastic interaction of neighbouring cables)
    5. interaction of wind, rain and cable

    NOTE: Galloping is not possible on a cable with a circular cross-section for symmetry reasons. This phenomenon may arise with cables where apparent shapes have altered, due to formation of layers of ice or dust. Forces due to c), d) and e) are a function of the motion of the cable (feedback) and are due to the ensuing aeroelastic instability leading to vibrations of large amplitudes starting at a critical wind speed. As the mechanism of dynamic excitation cannot yet be modelled with sufficient accuracy to make reliable predictions, measures should be provided to limit unforeseen vibrations.

    24
  3. Cable vibrations may also be caused by dynamic forces acting on other parts of the structure (girder, pylon).

    NOTE: This phenomenon is often referred to as “parametric excitation” and is responsible for large amplitude vibrations where the eigen-frequency of the cable stays and the structure overlap.

8.2 Measures to limit vibrations of cables

  1. Structures supported by cables should be monitored for excessive wind and rain induced vibrations either by visual inspection or other methods that allow a more accurate determination of their amplitudes, modes and frequencies.
  2. In the design of a cable structure provisions should be made for installing vibration controlling measures during or after erection.
  3. Such measures may include:
    1. modification of cable surface (aerodynamic shape);
    2. damping devices;
    3. stabilizing cables (e.g. tie-down cables with appropriate connections).

8.3 Estimation of risks

  1. Vibration of cables due to rain and wind should be prevented by design; this can involve utilising cable stays with texturing.
  2. The risk of vibration increases with cable stay length. Short cable stays (Image less than 70 m Image to 80 m) generally impose no risk, except that in the case of a particularly unstable structure (poorly shaped and flexible deck) parametric resonance occurs. Dampers are therefore not needed for short cable stays.
  3. For long cable stays with length greater than 80 m provisions should be made for the installation of dampers to ensure that the critical damping ratio exceeds 0,5 %. Dampers may be dispensed with on the back span cable stays where it is unlikely to have any major displacement of the anchorage as the span is short.
  4. The risk of parametric resonance should be assessed at the design stage by means of a detailed study of the Image eigen modes Image of the structure and cable stays considering the ratio of angular frequencies and anchorage displacement for each mode.
  5. Measures should be taken to avoid overlapping of frequencies, i.e. situations where the cable stay’s frequency of excitation Ω is within 20 % of the structure’s frequency ωn or 2ωn. If necessary, stability cables can be used to offset the modal angular frequencies of the cable stays.
  6. For users comfort and safety, the amplitude of cable stay vibration should be limited using a response criterion such that with a moderate wind velocity of 15 m/s the amplitude of cable stay vibration should not exceed L/500, where L is the length of the cable.

9 Fatigue

9.1 General

  1. The fatigue endurance of tension components in exposure classes 3, 4 or 5 to Table 2.1 should be determined using the fatigue actions from EN 1991 and the appropriate category of structural detail.
  2. Fatigue failure of cable systems usually occurs at anchorages, saddles or clamps. The effective category of detail at these locations should preferably be determined from tests representing the actual 25 configuration used and reproducing any flexural effect or transverse stresses likely to occur in practice. The test evaluation should be carried out according to EN 1990 - Annex D.

9.2 Fluctuating axial loads

  1. In the absence of the tests described in 9.1(2) above, fatigue strength curves and detail categories may be obtained from Figure 9.1 and Table 9.1, respectively.

    Figure 9.1: Fatigue strength curves for tension components

    Figure 9.1: Fatigue strength curves for tension components

    Table 9.1: Detail categories for fatigue strength according to EN 1993-1-9
    Group Tension components Detail category Δσc [N/mm2]
    A l Prestressing bars 105
    B 2 Fully locked coil rope with metal or resin socketing 150
    3 Spiral strands with metal or resin socketing 150
    C 4 Parallel wire strands with epoxy socketing 160
    5 Bundle of parallel strands 160
    6 Bundle of parallel wires 160

    NOTE: The detail categories in Table 9.1 refer to exposure classes 3 and 4 according to Table 2.1. For axial and lateral fatigue actions (exposure class 5 according to Table 2.1) additional protective measures are required in order to minimise bending stresses.

  2. The categories given in (1) are only valid when the following conditions apply:
    1. cables with sockets comply with the basic requirements in Annex A;
    2. the design of cables, saddles and clamps complies with 6;
    3. large aerodynamic oscillations of cables are prevented, see 8;
    4. adequate protection against corrosion is provided, see 4.
  3. For fatigue assessments see EN 1993-1-9.
26

Annex A - Product requirements for tension components

[informative]

A.1 Scope

  1. This annex gives the product requirements for tension components and their terminations to be used for buildings and civil engineering works.
  2. The requirements are based on the specific use of the prefabricated tension component including environmental and loading conditions.
  3. The following types of prefabricated tension components are covered:

A.2 Basic requirements

  1. Tension components should comply with the following criteria:
    1. strength and ductility of the cable system and its terminations;
    2. fatigue resistance due to axial load fluctuation, bending stresses, angular deviations caused by catenary effects, wind forces and erection imperfections;
    3. stable condition of axial and flexural stiffness of the cable system (e.g. by guaranteed pre-stretching);
    4. protection of cable and anchorages against corrosion;
    5. resistance to fretting at any contact between steel parts.
  2. Terminations and anchorages of the tension components should be designed such that:
    1. the ultimate resistance of the tension component would be reached before any yielding or other permanent deformation of the anchoring or any bearing elements would occur;
    2. their fatigue resistance exceeds that of the components;
    3. facilities for adjustment of the component length are provided to meet the requirements for preload, geometrical tolerances etc.;
    4. sufficient articulation is provided in the anchorage to cater for manufacturing and erection imperfections;
    5. the tension components can be replaced.
  3. The above requirements should be met by:
  4. The compliance of the above requirements should be verified by testing as part of an appropriate quality management system.

A.3 Materials

  1. All materials used should comply with the relevant European technical specifications.
  2. The suitability of the corrosion protection system including the durability of fillers and protection materials should be proved by appropriate testing. 27

    NOTE: The testing may prove the following:

A.4 Requirements for tests

A.4.1 General

  1. The following tests on wire, strands, bars and complete tension components should ensure that they perform as required.
  2. Fke and Fuke (see 6.2) should be determined in a static tension test. If required (e.g. for cutting to length (see 3.4) and structural analysis (see 5)) the test should follow the predicted stress profile of the cable in the structure for measuring all relevant data.
  3. To determine the fatigue strength curve, where required, a representative number of axial tests should be carried out at σsup = 0,45σuk (see 7.2(2)) with different values of ΔF, see Table A.4.1.

    NOTE: The fatigue testing should be carried out under load control and not under extension control.

    Table A.4.1: Testing requirements for fatigue
    Type of test Fatigue loading before fracture test
    l axial test

    (class 3 and 4)
    σsup = 0,45σuk
    Δσ according to Δσc given in Table 9.1
    Δα = 0
    n = 2× 106 cycles
    2 axial and flexural test

    (class 5)
    σsup = 0,45 σuk
    Δσ according to Δσc given in Table 9.1
    Δα = 0 – 10 milli radians       
    (0 - 0,7 degrees)
    n = 2×106 cycles
  4. If the tension component is to be subjected to fatigue loading and the fatigue resistance is verified according to 9.2(2) at least one test for each diameter of the component should be undertaken. It should be checked that in an axial test with σsup = 0,45 σuk and Δσ = 1,25 Δσc (see Table 9.1) the number of broken wires after 2· 106 cycles is less than 2% of the total. No failure should occur in the anchorage material or in any component of the anchorage during the fatigue tests. No failure is acceptable for bars.
  5. If the round-out radius at the entrance of the cable in the socket is less than 30d (see Figure 6.1) the tests as described in (2) and (3) should be undertaken with Δα being governed by the round-out radius.
  6. After fatigue loading, the test specimen should be loaded to fracture and should develop a minimum tensile force equal to 92% of the actual tensile strength of the cable or 95% of the minimum ultimate tensile strength of the cable, whichever is greater. The strain under this load should not be less than 1,5%.
  7. Fatigue tests in accordance with EN 10138 should be carried out on single strands, wires or bars taken from samples of each manufactured length of tension components.
28

A.4.2 Main tension elements

A.4.2.1 Wires
  1. Wires coated in zinc or zinc alloy should be tested in an approved testing machine.
A.4.2.2 Strands
  1. Tests should be carried out for tensile strength, 0,1% proof strength and elongation according to EN 10138.
A.4.2.3 Bars
  1. Tests should be carried out for tensile strength, 0,1% proof strength and elongation according to EN 10138.

A.4.3 Strands and complete cables

  1. If different sizes of one type of strand or ropes are used at least 3 representative tests should be carried out. Cables should be tested with all load-bearing components attached to them and the test load should be applied in the same way as in the structure.

A.4.4 Coefficient of friction

  1. If the coefficient of friction between the strands and saddles, clamps etc. is determined by testing the following should be taken into account:
  2. In the evaluation of the test results account should be taken of the fact, that friction can be either beneficial or adverse depending on the effect being considered.

A.4.5 Corrosion protection

A.4.5.1 Waterproofing
  1. The durability of the cable system should be verified using “accelerated ageing” in which the cycles of axial loads and bending and temperatures can be simulated. The test should be carried out for a representative section of the complete lower end of the cable including anchoring devices, stay pipe etc.

    NOTE: Details for tests may be given in the National Annex.

A.4.5.2 Corrosion protection barriers

NOTE: Details for tests, e.g. salt fog tests, may be given in the National Annex.

29

Annex B - Transport, storage, handling

[informative]

  1. Spiral strands and fully locked coil cables are supplied in either coils or on reels.
  2. To keep the out cover wires in lay the minimum diameter of the reel should not be less than 30 times the rope diameter of fully locked coil ropes, 24 times the rope diameter of spiral strand ropes and 16 times the diameter of strand ropes.

    NOTE: The minimum diameter depends on the protection system, storage time and temperature. Caution should be taken when unreeling at temperatures below 5 °C.

  3. If cables are stored in coils each coil should be properly ventilated (no direct ground contact) to prevent any formation of white blister which may be caused by condensation or moisture.
  4. Cables should be handled with utmost care during installation. Coils require a turntable for horizontal unreeling.
  5. Cables should not:
  6. Tension components should be monitored and inspected during working life for deviations to design conditions, corrosion and damage.

    NOTE: The National Annex may give further guidance on monitoring and inspections.

30

Annex C - Glossary

[informative]

NOTE: See EN 12385, Part 2.

C.1 Products Group A

Image

C.2 Products Group B

Spiral strand rope
  Image Image Image Image
Construction 1 × 19 1 × 37 1 × 61 1 × 91
Diameter ds [mm] 3 to 14 6 to 36 20 to 40 30 to 52
Strand 1 1 1 1
Wire per strand 19 37 61 91
Outer wire per strand 12 18 24 30
Nominal metallic area factor C 0,6 0,59 0.58 0,58
Breaking force factor K 0,525 0,52 0,51 0,51
Strand rope
  Image Image Image Image
Construction 6 × 19 - CF 6 × 19 - CWS 6 × 36WS - CF 6 × 36 WS - CWR
Diameter ds [mm] 6 to 40 6 to 40 6 to 40 6 to 40
Strand 6 6 6 6
Wire per strand 18 18 36 36
Outer wire per strand 12 12 14 14
Nominal metallic area factor C 0,357 0,414 0,393 0,455
Breaking force factor K 0,307 0,332 0,329 0,355
31
Fully locked coil rope
  Image Image Image
Construction 1 layer Z-wires 2 layer Z-wires ≥ 3 layer Z-wires
Diameter ds [mm] 20 to 40 25 to 50 40 to 180
Tolerance for ds +5% +5% +5%
Nominal metallic area factor C 0,636 0,660 0,700
Breaking force factor K 0,585 0,607 0,643
NOTE: Nominal metallic area factor and breaking force factor acc. EN 12385-2.

C.3 Wire rope end connectors

Wire rope end connectors - Metal or resin socketing acc. EN 13411-4
Open speller socket Image
Cylindrical socket Image
Conical socket with
internal thread and
tension rod
Image
Cylindrical socket
with external thread
and nut
Image
Cylindrical socket with
internal and external
thread and nut
Image
Cylindrical socket with
internal thread and
tension rod
Image
32
Wire rope end connectors swaged
Open swaged socket Image
Closed swaged socket Image
Swaged fitting with thread Image
Thimble with
swaged aluminium
ferrule acc. EN 13411-3
Image
U-bolt grip acc. EN 13411-5 Image

C.4 Product Group C

Bare strands, PE- or epoxy-coated strands
Live end anchorage Live end anchorage
Anchorage with wedges and postgrouted bond socket – bare strands, PE- or epoxy-coated strands
Image
Anchorage with wedges and sealing plates – PE-coated strands
Image
Anchorage with wedges and pregrouted pipe – PE-coated strands
Image
Anchorage with wedges and wax filled transition pipe – PE-coated strands
Image
33
Wires
Live end anchorage Live end anchorage
Anchorage with wires and compound filled socket
Image
Anchorage with wires and button heads filled with epoxy resin
Image
Bars
Live end anchorage Live end anchorage
Anchorage with single bar
Image
Anchorage with multiple bars and steel sheathing, grouted
Image
34 35