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EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM

EN 1995-2

November 2004

ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.20; 93.040

Supersedes ENV 1995-2:1997

English version

Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures - Part 2: Bridges

Eurocode 5: Conception et calcul des structures bois - Partie 2: Ponts Eurocode 5: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Holzbauten - Teil 2: Brucken

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 26 August 2004.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

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© 2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 1995-2:2004: E

1

Contents

Foreword 3
Section 1 General 6
  1.1 Scope 6
    1.1.1 Scope of EN 1990 6
    1.1.2 Scope of EN 1995-2 6
  1.2 Normative references 6
  1.3 Assumptions 7
  1.4 Distinction between principles and application rules 7
  1.5 Definitions 7
    1.5.1 General 7
    1.5.2 Additional terms and definitions used in this present standard 7
  1.6 Symbols used in EN 1995-2 9
  Section 2 Basis of design 11
  2.1 Basic requirements 11
  2.2 Principles of limit state design 11
  2.3 Basic variables 11
    2.3.1 Actions and environmental influences 11
  2.4 Verification by the partial factor method 11
    2.4.1 Design value of material property 11
Section 3 Material properties 13
Section 4 Durability 14
  4.1 Timber 14
  4.2 Resistance to corrosion 14
  4.3 Protection of timber decks from water by sealing 14
Section 5 Basis of structural analysis 15
  5.1 Laminated deck plates 15
    5.1.1 General 15
    5.1.2 Concentrated vertical loads 15
    5.1.3 Simplified analysis 16
  5.2 Composite members 17
  5.3 Timber-concrete composite members 17
Section 6 Ultimate limit states 18
  6.1 Deck plates 18
    6.1.1 System strength 18
    6.1.2 Stress-laminated deck plates 19
  6.2 Fatigue 21
Section 7 Serviceability limit states 22
  7.1 General 22
  7.2 Limiting values for deflections 22
  7.3 Vibrations 22
    7.3.1 Vibrations caused by pedestrians 22
    7.3.2 Vibrations caused by wind 22
Section 8 Connections 23
  8.1 General 23
  8.2 Timber-concrete connections in composite beams 23
    8.2.1 Laterally loaded dowel-type fasteners 23
    8.2.2 Grooved connections 23
Section 9 Structural detailing and control 24
Annex A (informative) Fatigue verification 25
  A.1 General 25
  A.2 Fatigue loading 25
  A.3 Fatigue verification 26
Annex B (informative) Vibrations caused by pedestrians 28
  B.1 General 28
  B.2 Vertical vibrations 28
  B.3 Horizontal vibrations 28
2

Foreword

This European Standard EN 1995-2 has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 “Structural Eurocodes”, the Secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a National Standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by March 2010.

This European Standard supersedes ENV 1995-2:1997.

CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Background of the Eurocode programme

In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation of technical specifications.

Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of harmonised technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would replace them.

For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the first generation of European codes in the 1980s.

In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of an agreement1 between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the publication of the Eurocodes to CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commission’s Decisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products - CPD - and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market).

The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards, generally consisting of a number of Parts:

EN 1990:2002 Eurocode: Basis of structural Design
EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structers
EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
EN 1995 Eurocode 5; design of timber structures
EN 1996 Eurocode 6 Design of masonry structures
EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design 3
EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures

1 Agreement between the commision of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89).

Eurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level where these continue to vary from State to State.

Status and field of application of Eurocodes

The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as reference documents for the following purposes:

The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship with the Interpretative Documents2 referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although they are of a different nature from harmonised product standards3. Therefore, technical aspects arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to achieving full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes.

The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases.

National Standards implementing Eurocodes

The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode (including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page and National foreword, and may be followed by a National annex.

The National annex may only contain information on those parameters which are left open in the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned, i.e.:

2According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for harmonised ENs and ETAGs/ETAs.

3According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall:
give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases and indicating classes or levels for each requirement where necessary ;
indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ;
serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical approvals.
The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2.

4

Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) for products

There is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications for construction products and the technical rules for works4. Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products which refer to Eurocodes shall clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account.

Additional information specific to EN 1995-2

EN 1995 describes the Principles and requirements for safety, serviceability and durability of timber bridges. It is based on the limit state concept used in conjunction with a partial factor method.

For the design of new structures, EN 1995-2 is intended to be used, for direct application, together with EN 1995-1-1 and EN1990:2002 and relevant Parts of EN 1991.

Numerical values for partial factors and other reliability parameters are recommended as basic values that provide an acceptable level of reliability. They have been selected assuming that an appropriate level of workmanship and of quality management applies. When EN 1995-2 is used as a base document by other CEN/TCs the same values need to be taken.

National annex for EN 1995-2

This standard gives alternative procedures, values and recommendations with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1995-2 should have a National annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of bridges to be constructed in the relevant country.

National choice is allowed in EN 1995-2 through clauses:

2.3.1.2(1) Load-duration assignment
2.4.1 Partial factors for material properties
7.2 Limiting values for deflection
7.3.1(2) Damping ratios

4 See Art.3.3 and Art. 12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1.

5

Section 1 General

1.1 Scope

1.1.1 Scope of EN 1990

  1. P EN 1990 applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in timber (solid timber, sawn, planed or in pole form, glued laminated timber or wood-based structural products e.g. LVL) or wood-based panels jointed together with adhesives or mechanical fasteners. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, and the basis of design and verification that are given in EN 1990:2002.
  2. P EN 1990 is only concerned with requirements for mechanical resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of timber structures. Other requirements, e.g concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered.
  3. EN 1990 is intended to be used in conjunction with:
    EN 1990:2002 Eurocode – Basis of structural design
    EN 1991 “Actions on structures”
    EN’s for construction products relevant to timber structures
    EN 1998 “Design of structures for earthquake resistance”, when timber structures are built in seismic regions
  4. EN 1990 is subdivided into various parts:
    EN 1995-1 General
    EN 1995-2 Bridges
  5. EN 1995-1 “General” comprises:
    EN 1995-1-1 General – Common rules and rules for buildings
    EN 1995-1-2 General – Structural Fire Design

1.1.2 Scope of EN 1995-2

  1. EN 1995-2 gives general design rules for the structural parts of bridges, i.e. structural members of importance for the reliability of the whole bridge or major parts of it, made of timber or other wood-based materials, either singly or compositely with concrete, steel or other materials.
  2. The following subjects are dealt with in EN 1995-2:
    Section 1: General
    Section 2: Basis of design
    Section 3: Material properties
    Section 4: Durability
    Section 5: Basis of structural analysis
    Section 6: Ultimate limit states
    Section 7: Serviceability limit states
    Section 8: Connections
    Section 9: Structural detailing and control
  3. Section 1 and Section 2 also provide additional clauses to those given in EN 1990:2002 “Eurocode: Basis of structural design”.
  4. Unless specifically stated, EN 1995-1-1 applies.

1.2 Normative references

  1. The following normative documents contain provisions which, through references in this text, constitute provisions of this European standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments6 to or revisions of any of these publications do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this European standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.

European Standards:

EN 1990:2002 Eurocode – Basis of structural design
EN1990:2002/A1 Eurocode – Basis of structural design/Amendment A1 – Annex A2:
Application to Bridges
EN 1991-1-4 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-4: Wind loads
EN 1991-2 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges
EN 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures – Part 1-1: Common rules and rules for buildings
EN 1992-2 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures – Part 2: Bridges
EN 1993-2 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 2: Bridges
EN 1995-1-1 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures – Part 1-1: General – Common
rules and rules for buildings
EN 10138-1 Prestressing steels – Part 1: General requirements
EN 10138-4 Prestressing steels – Part 4: Bars

1.3 Assumptions

  1. Additional requirements for execution, maintenance and control are given in section 9.

1.4 Distinction between principles and application rules

  1. (1) See 1.4(1) of EN 1995-1-1.

1.5 Definitions

1.5.1 General

  1. P The definitions of EN 1990:2002 clause 1.5 and EN 1995-1-1 clause 1.5 apply.

1.5.2 Additional terms and definitions used in this present standard

1.5.2.1
Grooved connection

Shear connection consisting of the integral part of one member embedded in the contact face of the other member. The contacted parts are normally held together by mechanical fasteners.

NOTE: An example of a grooved connection is shown in figure 1.1.

7

Figure 1.1 – Example of grooved connection

Figure 1.1 – Example of grooved connection

1.5.2.2
Laminated deck plates

Deck plates made of laminations, arranged edgewise or flatwise, held together by mechanical fasteners or gluing, see figures 1.2 and 1.3.

1.5.2.3
Stress-laminated deck plates

Laminated deck plates made of edgewise arranged laminations with surfaces either sawn or planed, held together by pre-stressing, see figure 1.2.b, c and d.

Figure 1.2 – Examples of deck plates made of edgewise arranged laminations a) nail-laminated or screw-laminated b) pre-stressed, but not glued c) glued and pre-stressed glued laminated beams positioned flatwise d) glued and pre-stressed glued laminated beams positioned edgewise

Figure 1.2 – Examples of deck plates made of edgewise arranged laminations
a) nail-laminated or screw-laminated
b) pre-stressed, but not glued
c) glued and pre-stressed glued laminated beams positioned flatwise
d) glued and pre-stressed glued laminated beams positioned edgewise

8
1.5.2.4
Cross-laminated deck plates

Laminated deck plates made of laminations in layers of different grain direction (crosswise or at different angles). The layers are glued together or connected using mechanical fasteners, see figure 1.3.

1.5.2.5
Pre-stressing

A permanent effect due to controlled forces and/or deformations imposed on a structure.

NOTE: An example is the lateral pre-stressing of timber deck plates by means of bars or tendons, see figure 1.2 b to d.

Figure 1.3 – Example of cross-laminated deck plate

Figure 1.3 – Example of cross-laminated deck plate

1.6 Symbols used in EN 1995-2

For the purpose of EN 1995-2, the following symbols apply.

Latin upper case letters

A Area of bridge deck
E0,mean Mean modulus of elasticity parallel to grain
E90,mean Mean modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the grain
F Force
Ft,Ed Design tensile force between timber and concrete
Fv,Ed Design shear force between timber and concrete
G0,mean Mean shear modulus parallel to grain
G90,mean Mean shear modulus perpendicular to grain (rolling shear)
M Total mass of bridge
Mbeam Bending moment in a beam representing a plate
Mmax,beam Maximum bending moment in a beam representing a plate
Nobs Number of constant amplitude stress cycles per year
R Ratio of stresses

Latin lower case letters

a Distance; fatigue coefficient
ahor,1 Horizontal acceleration from one person crossing the bridge
ahor,n Horizontal acceleration from several people crossing the bridge
avert,1 Vertical acceleration from one person crossing the bridge
avert,n Vertical acceleration from several people crossing the bridge
b Fatigue coefficient
bef Effective width
bef,c Total effective width of concrete slab
bbef,1; bef,2 Effective width of concrete slab 9
blam Width of the lamination
bw Width of the loaded area on the contact surface of deck plate
bw,middie Width of the loaded area in the middle of the deck plate
d Diameter; outer diameter of rod; distance
h Depth of beam; thickness of plate
fc,9o,d Design compressive strength perpendicular to grain
ffat,d Design value of fatigue strength
fk Characteristic strength
fm,d,deck Design bending strength of deck plate
fv,d,deck Design shear strength of deck plate
fm,d,lam Design bending strength of laminations
fv,d,lam Design shear strength of laminations
fvert, fhor Fundamental natural frequency of vertical and horizontal vibrations
kc,90 Factor for compressive strength perpendicular to the grain
kfat Factor representing the reduction of strength with number of load cycles
khor Coefficient
kmod Modification factor
ksys System strength factor
kvert Coefficient
Span
1 Distance
m Mass; mass per unit length
mplate Bending moment in a plate per unit length
mmax,plate Maximum bending moment in a plate
n Number of loaded laminations; number of pedestrians
nADT Expected annual average daily traffic over the lifetime of the structure
t Time; thickness of lamination
tL Design service life of the structure expressed in years

Greek lower case letters

α Expected percentage of observed heavy lorries passing over the bridge
β Factor based on the damage consequence; angle of stress dispersion
γM Partial factor for timber material properties, also accounting for model uncertainties
and dimensional variations
γM,c Partial factor for concrete material properties, also accounting for model uncertainties and dimensional variations
γM,s Partial factor for steel material properties, also accounting for model uncertainties and dimensional variations
γM,v Partial factor for shear connectors, also accounting for model uncertainties and dimensional variations
γM,fat Partial safety factor for fatigue verification of materials, also accounting for model uncertainties and dimensional variations
k Ratio for fatigue verification
pmean Mean density
μd Design coefficient of friction
σd.max Numerically largest value of design stress for fatigue loading
σd,min Numerically smallest value of design stress for fatigue loading
σp,min Minimum long-term residual compressive stress due to pre-stressing;
ζ Damping ratio
10

Section 2 Basis of design

2.1 Basic requirements

  1. P The design of timber bridges shall be in accordance with EN 1990:2002.

2.2 Principles of limit state design

  1. See 2.2 of EN 1995-1-1.

2.3 Basic variables

2.3.1 Actions and environmental influences

2.3.1.1 General
  1. Actions to be used in design of bridges may be obtained from the relevant parts of EN 1991.

Note 1: The relevant parts of EN 1991 for use in design include:

EN 1991-1-1 Densities, self-weight and imposed loads
EN 1991-1-3 Snow loads
EN 1991-1-4 Wind loads
EN 1991-1-5 Thermal actions
EN 1991-1-6 Actions during execution
EN 1991-1-7 Accidental actions due to impact and explosions
EN 1991-2 Traffic loads on bridges.
2.3.1.2 Load-duration classes
  1. Variable actions due to the passage of vehicular and pedestrian traffic should be regarded as short-term actions.

    NOTE: Examples of load-duration assignments are given in note to 2.3.1 of EN 1995-1-1. The recommended load-duration assignment for actions during erection is short-term. The National choice may be given in the National annex.

  2. Initial pre-stressing forces perpendicular to the grain should be regarded as short-term actions.

2.4 Verification by the partial factor method

2.4.1 Design value of material property

NOTE: For fundamental combinations, the recommended partial factors for material properties, γM, are given in table 2.1. For accidental combinations, the recommended value of partial factor is γM = 1,0. Information on the National choice may be found in the National annex.

11
Table 2.1 – Recommended partial factors for material properties
1. Timber and wood-based materials  
  – normal verification  
    – solid timber γM = 1,3
    – glued laminated timber γM = 1,25
    – LVL, plywood, OSB γM = 1,2
    – fatigue verification γM = 1,0
2. Connections  
    – normal verification γM = 1,3
    – fatigue verification γM,fat = 1,0
3. Steel used in composite members γM,s = 1,15
4. Concrete used in composite members γM,c = 1,5
5. Shear connectors between timber and concrete in composite members  
    – normal verification γM,v = 1,25
    – fatigue verification γM,v,fat = 1,0
6. Pre-stressing steel elements γM,s = 1,15
12

Section 3 Material properties

  1. P Pre-stressing steels shall comply with EN 10138-1 and EN 10138-4.
13

Section 4 Durability

4.1 Timber

  1. The effect of precipitation, wind and solar radiation should be taken into account.

    NOTE 1: The effect of direct weathering by precipitation or solar radiation of structural timber members can be reduced by constructional preservation measures, or by using timber with sufficient natural durability, or timber preservatively treated against biological attacks.

    NOTE 2: Where a partial or complete covering of the main structural elements is not practical, durability can be improved by one or more of the following measures:

    NOTE 3: The risk of increased moisture content near the ground, e.g. due to insufficient ventilation due to vegetation between the timber and the ground, or splashing water, can be reduced by one or more of the following measures:

  2. P Where structural timber members are exposed to abrasion by traffic, the depth used in the design shall be the minimum permitted before replacement.

4.2 Resistance to corrosion

  1. EN 1995-1-1 clause 4.2 applies to fasteners. EN 1993-2 applies to steel parts other than fasteners.

    NOTE: An example of especially corrosive conditions is a timber bridge where corrosive de-icing cannot be excluded.

  2. P The possibility of stress corrosion shall be taken into account.
  3. Steel parts encased in concrete, such as reinforcing bars and pre-stressing cables, should be protected according EN 1992-1-1 clause 4.4.1 and EN 1992-2.
  4. The effect of chemical treatment of timber, or timber with high acidic content, on the corrosion protection of fasteners should be taken into account.

4.3 Protection of timber decks from water by sealing

  1. P The elasticity of the seal layers shall be sufficient to follow the movement of the timber deck. 14

Section 5 Basis of structural analysis

5.1 Laminated deck plates

5.1.1 General

  1. The analysis of laminated timber deck plates should be based upon one of the following:

    NOTE: In an advanced analysis, for deck plates made of softwood laminations, the relationships for the system properties should be taken from table 5.1. The Poisson ratio v may be taken as zero.

    Table 5.1 – System properties of laminated deck plates
    Type of deck plate E90,mean/E0,mean G0,mean/E0,mean G90,mean/G0,mean
    Nail-laminated 0 0,06 0,05
    Stress-laminated      
    – sawn 0,015 0,06 0,08
    – planed 0,020 0,06 0,10
    Glued-laminated 0,030 0,06 0,15
  2. For cross-laminated deck plates, see Figure 1.3, shear deformations should be taken into account.

5.1.2 Concentrated vertical loads

  1. Loads should be considered at a reference plane in the middle of the deck plate.
  2. For concentrated loads an effective load area with respect to the middle plane of the deck plate should be assumed, see figure 5.1,

where:

bw is the width of the loaded area on the contact surface of the pavement;
bw,middle is the width of the loaded area at the reference plane in the middle of the deck plate;
β is the angle of dispersion according to table 5.2.
15

Figure 5.1 – Dispersion of concentrated loads from contact area width bw

Figure 5.1 – Dispersion of concentrated loads from contact area width bw

Table 5.2 – Dispersion angle β of concentrated loads for various materials
Pavement (in accordance with EN 1991-2 clause 4.3.6) 45°
Boards and planks 45°
Laminated timber deck plates:  
– in the direction of the grain Image 45°
– perpendicular to the grain Image 15°
Plywood and cross-laminated deck plates 45°

5.1.3 Simplified analysis

  1. The deck plate may be replaced by one or several beams in the direction of the laminations with the effective width bef calculated as

bef = bw,middle + a     (5.1)

where:

bw,middle should be calculated according to 5.1.2(2);
a should be taken from table 5.3.
16
Table 5.3 – Width a in m for determination of effective width of beam
Deck plate system a
m
Nail-laminated deck plate 0,1
Stress-laminated or glued laminated 0,3
Cross-laminated timber 0,5
Composite concrete/timber deck structure 0,6

5.2 Composite members

  1. P For composite action of deck plate systems, the influence of joint slip shall be taken into account.

    NOTE: See clause 8.2

5.3 Timber-concrete composite members

  1. The concrete part should be designed according to EN 1992-2.
  2. The steel fasteners and the grooved connections should be designed to transmit all forces due to composite action. Friction and adhesion between wood and concrete should not be taken into account, unless a special investigation is carried out.
  3. The effective width of the concrete plate of composite timber beam/concrete deck structures should be determined as:

    bef,c = b + bef,1 + bef,2     (5.2)

    where:

    b is the width of the timber beam;
    bef,1, bef,2 are the effective widths of the concrete flanges, as determined for a concrete T- section according to EN 1992-1-1, subclause 5.3.2.1.
  4. P For verification at ultimate limit state, cracks in the concrete plate shall be taken into account.
  5. The effect of concrete tension stiffening may be included. As a simple approach the stiffness of the cracked part of the concrete cross-section may be taken as 40 % of the stiffness in un-cracked condition. In such areas the need for an adequate crack distributing reinforcement should be observed.
17

Section 6 Ultimate limit states

6.1 Deck plates

6.1.1 System strength

  1. The relevant rules given in EN 1995-1-1 clause 6.7 apply
  2. The design bending and shear strength of the deck plate should be calculated as:

    fm,d,deck = ksys fm,d,lam     (6.1)

    fv,d,deck = ksys fv,d,lam     (6.2)

    where:

    fm,d,lam is the design bending strength of the laminations;
    fv,d,lam is the design shear strength of the laminations;
    ksys is the system strength factor, see EN 1995-1-1. For decks in accordance to Fig. 1.2d EN 1995-1-1 figure 6.14 line 1 should be used.

    For the calculation of ksys, the number of loaded laminations should be taken as:

    Image

    with:

    bef is the effective width;
    blam is the width of the laminations.
  3. The effective width bef should be taken as (see figure 6.1):

    Image

    where:

    Mmax,beam is the maximum bending moment in a beam representing the plate;
    mmax,plate is the maximum bending moment in the plate calculated by a plate analysis.

    NOTE: In 5.1.3 a simplified method is given for the determination of the effective width.

18

Figure 6.1 – Example of bending moment distribution in the plate for determination of effective width

Figure 6.1 – Example of bending moment distribution in the plate for determination of effective width

6.1.2 Stress-laminated deck plates

  1. P The long-term pre-stressing forces shall be such that no inter-laminar slip occurs.
  2. The following requirement should be satisfied:

    Fv,EDμd σp,minh     (6.5)

    where:

    Fv,Ed is the design shear force per unit length, caused by vertical and horizontal actions;
    μd is the design value of coefficient of friction;
    σp,min is the minimum long-term residual compressive stress due to pre-stressing;
    h is the thickness of the plate.
  3. The coefficient of friction should take into account the following:
  4. Unless other values have been verified, the design static friction coefficients, μd, between softwood timber laminations, and between softwood timber laminations and concrete, should be taken from table 6.1. For moisture contents between 12 and 16 %, the values may be obtained by linear interpolation.
  5. In areas subjected to concentrated loads, the minimum long-term residual compressive stress, σpmin, due to pre-stressing between laminations should be not less than 0,35 N/mm2.
  6. The long-term residual pre-stressing stress may normally be assumed to be greater than 0,35 N/mm2, provided that:
    Table 6.1 – Design values of coefficient of friction μd
    Lamination surface roughness Perpendicular to grain Parallel to grain
    Moisture
    content
    ≤ 12 %
    Moisture
    content
    ≥ 16 %
    Moisture
    content
    ≤ 12 %
    Moisture
    content
    ≥ 16 %
    Sawn timber to sawn timber 0,30 0,45 0,23 0,35
    Planed timber to planed timber 0,20 0,40 0,17 0,30
    Sawn timber to planed timber 0,30 0,45 0,23 0,35
    Timber to concrete 0,40 0,40 0,40 0,40
  7. The resulting pre-stressing forces should act centrally on the timber cross-section.
  8. P The compressive stress perpendicular to the grain during pre-stressing in the contact area of the anchorage plate shall be verified.
  9. The factor kC,90 according to EN 1995-1-1 may be taken as 1,3.
  10. Not more than one butt joint should occur in any four adjacent laminations within a distance 1 given as

    Image

    where:

    d is the distance between the pre-stressing elements;
    t is the thickness of the laminations in the direction of pre-stressing.
  11. In calculating the longitudinal strength of stress-laminated deck plates, the section should be reduced in proportion to the number of butt joints within a distance of 4 times the thickness of laminations in the direction of pre-stressing. 20

    Figure 6.2 — Butt joints in stress-laminated deck plates

    Figure 6.2 — Butt joints in stress-laminated deck plates

6.2 Fatigue

  1. P For structures or structural parts and connections that are subjected to frequent stress variations from traffic or wind loading, it shall be verified that no failure or major damage will occur due to fatigue.

    NOTE 1: A fatigue verification is normally not required for footbridges.

    NOTE 2: A simplified verification method is given in annex A (informative).

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Section 7 Serviceability limit states

7.1 General

  1. In the calculations, mean values of density should be used.

7.2 Limiting values for deflections

NOTE: The range of limiting values for deflections due to traffic load only, for beams, plates or trusses with span is given in Table 7.1. The recommended values are underlined. Information on National choice may be found in the National annex.

Table 7.1 – Limiting values for deflections for beams, plates and trusses
Action Range of limiting values
Characteristic traffic load /400 to /500
Pedestrian load and low traffic load /200 to /400

7.3 Vibrations

7.3.1 Vibrations caused by pedestrians

  1. For comfort criteria EN1990:2002/A1 applies.
  2. Where no other values have been verified, the damping ratio should be taken as:

    NOTE 1: For specific structures, alternative damping ratios may be given in the National annex.

    NOTE 2: A simplified method for assessing vibrations of timber bridges constructed with simply supported beams or trusses is given in Annex B.

7.3.2 Vibrations caused by wind

  1. PEN 1991-1-4 applies
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Section 8 Connections

8.1 General

  1. P The following shall not be used in bridges:

8.2 Timber-concrete connections in composite beams

8.2.1 Laterally loaded dowel-type fasteners

  1. The rope effect should not be used.
  2. Where there is an intermediate non-structural layer between the timber and the concrete (e.g. for formwork), see figure 8.1, the strength and stiffness parameters should be determined by a special analysis or by tests.

    Figure 8.1 – Intermediate layer between concrete and timber

    Figure 8.1 – Intermediate layer between concrete and timber

8.2.2 Grooved connections

  1. For grooved connections, see figure 1.1, the shear force should be taken by direct contact pressure between the wood and the concrete cast in the groove.
  2. It should be verified that the resistance of the concrete part and the timber part of the connection is sufficient.
  3. P The concrete and timber parts shall be held together so that they can not separate.
  4. The connection should be designed for a tensile force between the timber and the concrete with a magnitude of:

    Ft,Ed = 0,1 Fv,Ed     (8.1)

    where:

    Ft,Ed is the design tensile force between the timber and the concrete;
    Fv,Ed is the design shear force between the timber and the concrete.
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Section 9 Structural detailing and control

  1. P The relevant rules given in EN 1995-1-1 Section 10 also apply to the structural parts of bridges, with the exception of clauses 10.8 and 10.9.
  2. Before attaching a seal layer on a deck plate, the deck system should be dry and the surface should satisfy the requirements of the seal layer.
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Annex A Fatigue verification

(informative)

A.1 General

  1. This simplified method is based on an equivalent constant amplitude fatigue loading, representing the fatigue effects of the full spectrum of loading events.

    NOTE: More advanced fatigue verification for varying stress amplitude can be based on a cumulative linear damage theory (Palmgren-Miner hypothesis).

  2. The stress should be determined by an elastic analysis under the specified action. The stresses should allow for stiff or semi-rigid connections and second order effects from deformations and distortions.
  3. A fatigue verification is required if the ratio k given by expression (A.1) is greater than:

    where:

    Image

    σd,max is the numerically largest design stress from the fatigue loading;
    σd,min is the numerically smallest design stress from the fatigue loading;
    fk is the relevant characteristic strength;
    γM,fat is the material partial factor for fatigue loading.

A.2 Fatigue loading

  1. A simplified fatigue load model is built up of reduced loads (effects of actions) compared to the static loading models. The load model should give the maximum and minimum stresses in the actual structural members.
  2. The fatigue loading from traffic should be obtained from the project specification in conjunction with EN 1991-2.
  3. The number of constant amplitude stress cycles per year, Nobs, should either be taken from table 4.5 of EN 1991-2 or, if more detailed information about the actual traffic is available, be taken as:

    Nobs = 365 nADT α     (A.2)

    where:

    Nobs is the number of constant amplitude stress cycles per year;
    nADT is the expected annual average daily traffic over the lifetime of the structure; the value of nADT should not be taken less than 1000; 25
    α is the expected fraction of observed heavy lorries passing over the bridge, see EN 1991-2 clause4.6 (e.g. α = 0,1);

A.3 Fatigue verification

  1. Unless the verification model is defined below or by special investigations, the ratio k should be limited to the value defined in the previous clause A1(3).
  2. For a constant amplitude loading the fatigue verification criterion is:

    σd,maxffat,d     (A.3)

    where:

    σd,max is the numerically largest design stress from the fatigue loading;
    ffat,d is the design value of fatigue strength.
  3. The design fatigue strength should be taken as:

    Image

    where:

    fk is the characteristic strength for static loading;
    kfat is a factor representing the reduction of strength with number of load cycles.
  4. The value of kfat should be taken as:

    Image

    where:

    R = σd,mind,max    with –1 ≤ R ≤ 1;      (A.6)

    σd,min is the numerically smallest design stress from the fatigue loading;
    σd,max is the numerically largest design stress from the fatigue loading;
    Nobs is the number of constant amplitude stress cycles as defined above;
    tL is the design service life of the structure expressed in years according to EN 1990:2002 (e.g. 100 years);β is a factor based on the damage consequence for the actual structural component;
    a, b are coefficients representing the type of fatigue action according to table A.1.

    The factor β should be taken as:

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Table A.1 – Values of coefficients a and b
  a b
Timber members in    
– compression, perpendicular or parallel to grain 2,0 9,0
– bending and tension 9,5 1,1
– shear 6,7 1,3
Connections with    
– dowels with d ≤ 12 mm a 6,0 1,2
– nails 6,9 1,2
a The values for dowels are mainly based on tests on 12 mm tight-fitting dowels. Significantly larger diameter dowels or non-fitting bolts may have less favourable fatigue properties.
27

Annex B Vibrations caused by pedestrians

(informative)

B.1 General

  1. The rules given in this annex apply to timber bridges with simply supported beams or truss systems excited by pedestrians.

NOTE: Corresponding rules will be found in future versions of EN 1991-2.

B.2 Vertical vibrations

  1. For one person crossing the bridge, the vertical acceleration avert, 1 in m/s2 of the bridge should be taken as:

    Image

    where:

    M is the total mass of the bridge in kg, given by M = mℓ;
    is the span of the bridge;
    m is the mass per unit length (self-weight) of the bridge in kg/m;
    ζ is the damping ratio;
    fvert is the fundamental natural frequency for vertical deformation of the bridge.
  2. For several persons crossing the bridge, the vertical acceleration avert,n in m/s2 of the bridgeshould be calculated as:

    avert,n = 0,23 avert,1 n kvert     (B.2)

    where:

    n is the number of pedestrians;
    kvert is a coefficient according to figure B.1;
    avert,1 is the vertical acceleration for one person crossing the bridge determined according to expression (B.1).

    The number of pedestrians, n, should be taken as:

  3. If running persons are taken into account, the vertical acceleration avert,1 in m/s2 of the bridge caused by one single person running over the bridge, should be taken as:

    Image

B.3 Horizontal vibrations

  1. For one person crossing the bridge the horizontal acceleration ahor,1 in m/s2 of the bridge should be calculated as: 28

    Image

    where fhor is the fundamental natural frequency for horizontal deformation of the bridge.

  2. For several persons crossing the bridge, the horizontal acceleration ahor,n in m/s2 of the bridge should be calculated as:

    ahor,n = 0,18 ahor,1 n khor     (B.5)

    where:

    khor is a coefficient according to figure B.2.

    The number of pedestrians, n, should be taken as:

    n = 13 for a distinct group of pedestrians;
    n = 0,6 A for a continuous stream of pedestrians,

    where A is the area of the bridge deck in m2.

    Figure B.1 – Relationship between the vertical fundamental natural frequency fvert and the

    Figure B.1 – Relationship between the vertical fundamental natural frequency fvert and the coefficient kvert

    Figure B.2 – Relationship between the horizontal fundamental natural frequency fhor and

    Figure B.2 – Relationship between the horizontal fundamental natural frequency fhorand the coefficient khor

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