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Knowledge is of tntxy kinds. . i^e know ci subject ourselves, or we know where^ we can find information upon if.

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A New and Thoroughly Modern Reference Work Designed to Meet the Needs of Every Age

ELLSWORTH D. FOSTER, LL.B.

EDITOR IN CHIEF

Associate Editor New Practical Reference Library; Author Cyclopedia of Civil Government

JAMES LAUGHLIN HUGHES

EDITOR FOR CANADA

Author, and Former Chief Inspector of Schools, Toronto

lExtfnaiatt Sliitian

IN EIGHT VOLUMES

1924

RALPH DURHAM COMPANY

CHICAGO PUBLISHERS

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©C1A807562

Copyright, 1923

HANSON-BELLOWS PUBLISHING COMPANY

Printed in U. S. A*

OCT 16 *24

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VOLUME FOUR

GOPHER, go'fur, the name of various burrowing animals, natives of North Amer¬ ica. The true gopher is remarkable for hav-

STRIPED GOPHER

ing fur-lined pouches on the sides of its face and neck. In some species these pouches extend from the mouth to the shoulders. They are used in carrying food and also in carrying out dirt from the burrows. The common striped gopher, or prairie squirrel, of the West is a different animal. It does considerable damage to fields, making bur¬ rows so numerous that a network of passage¬ ways is formed under the surface. The name gopher was formerly applied by the early French settlers to any animal that honey-combed the soil. Several burrowing squirrels also have this name in various parts of the world.

GO'RAMY, or GOURAMI, goo'ra mi, a Chinese fish allied to the climbing perch, greenish brown in color, with slight vertical stripes of darker hue. It is one of the few fishes that build nests, and these are con¬ structed by interweaving the stems and leaves of water plants. The goramy is con¬ sidered excellent food. It grows to a length of from two to five feet.

GOR'DIAN KNOT. According to ancient legend, Gordius, a Phrygian peasant, was, through the intervention of the gods, raised to the honor of king of Phrygia. Through gratitude he dedicated to Zeus his cart and yoke, the knot of which was tied in an ex¬ ceedingly skilful and complicated manner. Oracles had foretold that whoever should un¬ loose the knot should be the ruler of all Asia. Many attempts had been made to untie the knot, but when Alexander the Great came to Gordium he cut the knot with his sword and asserted that he had realized the, prophecy. To-day when “cutting the Gor-

97

dian knot” is referred to it means that a serious difficulty is being overcome. It is a common reference in literature.

GOR'DON, Chaeles George (1833-1885), a British soldier, known as Chinese Gor¬ don and Gordon Pasha. He served through the Crimean War, and after the Chinese War in 1860 he remained in China, rose in rank and for his effective service in putting down rebellions was honored by China and by England. From 1877 to 1879 he was gover¬ nor of the Sudan under the khedive. For a few months in 1882 he held an appointment at the Cape, and he had just accepted a mis¬ sion to the Congo from the king of the Bel¬ gians, when he was sent to withdraw the gar¬ risons shut up in the Sudan by the insur¬ gent Mahdi. He was besieged in Khartum by the rebels and gallantly held that town for ten months. A British force under Lord Wolseley was dispatched for his relief, but arrived in January, 1885, to find that the town had been treacherously betrayed inro the hands of the Mahdi and Gordon had been murdered.

GORDON, Charles William (1860- ), a Canadian novelist and clergyman, best known by his pen name, Ralph Connor. The novels which gained him widest popu¬ larity are tales of the mines, farms and lum¬ ber camps of the great Northwest, a phase of Canadian life that he knows intimately. Gordon was born in the County of Glen- * g a r r y, Ont., whither his father and mother had emi- grated from Scotland. Like his father, he became a Pres¬ byterian minis¬ ter. After his graduation at the University of Toronto, he studied theol- CHARLES W. GORDON

ogy at Knox College, Toronto, and in 1890 was ordained. The next three years <h^ spent in the North West Territories as a missionary to the miners and

1537

GORGAS

1538

GORILLA

lumbermen, and in 1894 accepted the pas¬ torate of a Presbyterian Church at Winnipeg. He entered deeply into the religious and social problems of the country, and was ar¬ dent in patriotic work during the World War, spending several months as chaplain with the Canadian forces at the front, and lecturing extensively at home.

Gordon^s novels are vivid tales of life as he witnessed it, and they also have a strong religious element. They include Black Bock, The Sky Pilot, The Man from Glengarry, The Prospector, Gwen, The Foreigner, The Becall of Love and Corporal Cameron.

GORGAS, William Crawford (1854- 1920 )j an American physician who gained an international reputation as a sanitarian by his conquest of disease in the Panama Canal Zone. He was bom in Mobile, Ala., studied at the University of the South, and re¬ ceived his medical training at the Bellevue Hospital Medical College.

In 1880 he was made surgeon in the United States army, and received various promo¬ tions before his appointment i n 1898 as chief san- i t a r y officer in Havana. He remained there for five years, and did such efficient work that y ffiow fever was practically eliminated. For ois services, at Havana he was made colonel by a special act of Congress.

In 1904 he was made chief sanita* y officer of the Panama Canal Zone, and i«Is work there practically transformed the district from a breeding spot for yellow fever and malaria to a healthful place where Americans can live and work without danger. In 1914 Gorgas was made surgeon-general of the United States army, and in 1915, by special act of Congress, was made major-general. His term as surgeon-general of the army ex¬ pired in October, 1918. The same year he went to Europe in connection with the med¬ ical service of the American Expeditionary Force, and on December 1 was placed on the retired list.

GORGONS, gawr'gonz, in Greek mythol¬

WILLIAM C. GORGAS

ogy, three frightful female monsters, who had large teeth and claws of bronze. Their bodies were covered with impenetrable scales, and serpents sprang from their heads in lieu of hair. Their glance was so terrible it turned mortals to stone. Two of them were immortal; Medusa, the mortal one, was killed by Perseus. See Medusa.

GORILLA, go ril'a, the largest of the apes, a huge, ungainly animal that usually walks on all fours, but is able to walk uprightly. It is as tall as a man, and so powerful that it can easily rend the strongest of men. The animal is dreaded as an adversary because of his ferocity when angered ; in his domestic life, however, he is a model for many other

GORILLA

animals. He has only one wife if his mate can be so called ; he pays assiduous attentior to her, and watches carefully over his family.

Gorillas live usually in trees. They make a sleeping place somewhat like a hammock in appearance, joining the branches of the thickly leaved parts of the tree by long and tough stems of plants. This bed-chamber they line with grass. These animals are nat¬ urally vegetarians, but they will eat meat on occasion ; their food usually consists of nuts, eggs, honey, the fruits of various palm trees, and the like.

Nothing was known in Europe of gorillas until 1847. When previous reports of them reached civilization they were regarded as exaggerations, but in 1859 explorers proved

GORKY

1539

their existence. It is believed that not more than 2,000 of them are now living.

GORKY, gaw/kij Maxim (in full, Alexei Maximovitch Pyeshkoff^ 1868- ), a

famous Russian novelist and reformer, born at Nizhni Novgorod. His parents were in humble circumstances, and during early life he was employed successively as shoemaker, gardener, cook and clerk. Finally he gave up all employment and became a tramp. During his travels he secured much of the material which he later used in his novels. Among his best-known works, all of which are extremely tragic and are written in an emotional style, are Song of the Falcon, Foma Gordyeeff, The Outcasts, Three Men and Reminiscences of Tolstoy. In later years Gorky devoted himself to spreading the influence of the liberal political movement in Russia, and at the time of the revolution of 1917 he was editing in Petrograd a radical paper. He at first opposed the Bolsheviki, but later was reported to have given them his support. Gorky is the author of several dramas, of which the most important are The Summer Folk, The Children of the Sun and The Barbarians. All are concerned with political Russia.

GOS'HAWK, the largest of the short¬ winged hawks, formerly used in falconry. It is grayish above, white below, with ashy brown bars. In the United States and Can¬ ada there is but one species native; this is larger and handsomer than the European species and is commonly called the hen hawk or chicken hawk.

GO'SHEN, the name of the portion of Egypt assigned to J acob and his family, when they entered the land to escape famine ( Gen. XL VII). Goshen was located on the eastern border of the Nile delta, but its boundaries are indefinite. The land was especially well suited to grazing, and it was here that the Hebrews remained until they were enslaved by the Egyptians.

GOSHEN, Ind., the county seat of Elk¬ hart County, twenty-five miles southeast of South Bend, on the Elkhart River and on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern (New York Central) and the Cleveland, Cincin¬ nati, Chicago & Saint Louis railroads. The city is in a fertile agricultural region and has flour and woolen mills, machine shops, wood¬ working establishments and large lumber mills and brickyards. It has Goshen College, a fine public library and a hospital. Popula-

GOTHAM

tion, 1910, 8,514; in 1920, 9,525, a gain of 12 per cent.

GOS'NOLD, Bartholomew (?-1607), an English navigator and Atlantic coast ex¬ plorer. In 1602, with an expedition equipped by Raleigh, he sailed along the New England coast from Maine to Buzzard^s Bay and re¬ turned home with a cargo of furs and woods, which, together with his personal influence, was the chief cause of the organization of the London Company that colonized Virginia. He went with the first expedition in 1607, but died from fever after arriving in America.

GOSTELS, the first four books of the New Testament, so called because they give an ac¬ count of Christ’s mission. The word origi¬ nally meant good tidings, but it came to mean God’s story. The first three books of the New Testament are known as the synoptic gospels, as they contain about the same ac¬ counts and give a summary or synopsis of Christ’s Galilean ministry. They were written about A. d. 65 or 80. According to some critics, they depend on some previously written account. Matthew, as a Jew, pic¬ tures Christ as a royal Messiah ; Mark writes for the Gentiles and shows Christ’s love for the poor and the outcast. All give Christ’s talks in the simple speech of the common people, with parables giving directions for Christian living. The gospel of John con¬ tains an account of Christ’s life in Judea and many events not given in the other three. Its date is about a. d. 90. The teachings of Christ are given in figurative language, with Jesus himself as the subject. Some critics account for this difference in the fact that John was more closely associated with Jesus and that the account given was of work in very different surroundings.

Related Arfieles. Consult the following titles for additional information:

John, Saint Matthew, Saint

Luke, Saint Mark, Saint

GOSSAMER, gos'a mer, the very fine thread of spider’s silk which floats through the air, sometimes traveling great distances. The spiders of one species are so prolific the young have to scatter as soon as hatched in order to find enough to eat. The exceedingly- minute animals climb to the top of the near¬ est bush, unfurl a delicate gossamer thread to the gentle breeze and sail away upon it.

GOTH' AM, a name given by Washington Irving to New York City. The original Gotham was an English village whose people

GOTHENBURG

1540

GOULD

were known for their follies, and whose fame was perpetuated in 1568 in the “Merry Tales of the Mad Men of Gotham.”

GOTHENBURG, go'ten boorg, or GOTE- BORG, gii'te hoorg, Sweden, a seaport sec¬ ond to Stockholm in population and trade. It is the capital of the Ian, or province, of the same name, and is situated at the mouth of the Gota-Elf, in the Kattegat. Gothen¬ burg is one of the best-built cities in Sweden and is the seat of a bishopric. It has manu¬ factures of sail cloth, cotton and other goods and possesses shipbuilding yards, tobacco factories, breweries and sugar refineries. The trade is very extensive, the harbor being excellent and always free from ice. The city has excellent educational institutions, includ¬ ing a university attended by about 2,000 stu¬ dents. Population, 1922, 227,343.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. See Archi¬ tecture.

GOTHS, an ancient Teutonic tribe, occu¬ pying, when first known to history, the re¬ gion adjacent to the Black Sea, north of the Danube. About the middle of the third cen¬ tury they began to encroach on the Roman Empire. In the fourth century the great Gothic kingdom extended from the Don to the Theiss and from the Black Sea to the Vistula and the Baltic. About the year 369 internal disturbances divided the Gothic kingdom. Henceforth these people were known as Ostrogoths (eastern Goths) and the Visigoths (western Goths). In 396 Alaric, king of the Visigoths, made an irrup¬ tion into Greece, laid waste the Peloponnesus and became prefect of Illyria. He invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 409, and a second time in 410. After his death, in 410, the Visigoths succeeded in establishing a new kingdom in southern Gaul and Spain, of which, toward the end of the fifth century, Provence, Languedoc and Catalonia were the principal provinces, and Toulouse was the seat of government. The last king, Roderick, was killed in 711 by the Moors, who had crossed from Africa and overrun Southern Spain. After the overthrow of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the Eastern emperor, Zeno, persuaded Theodoric, king of the Os¬ trogoths, to invade Italy. The Goth became king of Italy in 493 and laid the foundation of a new Ostrogothic kingdom, which came to an end in 554. Subsequently the Goths both here and in Spain entirely disappeared as a distinct people.

GOUGH, gof, John Bartholomew (1817- 1886), probably the world’s most famous tem¬ perance lecturer, was born in England. He emigrated to America when but a boy, worked on a farm in New York and after¬ ward was for a time in a bookbindery in New York City. He lost his position through drinking, and for a time earned a living by singing in saloons ; but he was induced at last to sign a pledge, and from that time he lec¬ tured in a fiery manner on behalf of tem¬ perance. He attained a very wide reputation and visited Europe several times. He pub¬ lished an Autobiography, a volume of sketches. Sunlight and Shadow, or Gleamings from My Life Work, and his lectures.

GOULD, goold, George Jay (1864-1923), an American capitalist, born at New York, the son of Jay Gould. He was privately educated and when he became of age assumed direction of many of his father’s railroad and other commercial enterprises. Under his en¬ ergetic management the Gould interests were vastly extended and embraced a total railroad mileage of more than 21,000 miles, besides large holdings in the Western Union Tele¬ graph Company, the Equitable Life Assur¬ ance Society, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, numerous national banks and other corporations. The Gould railway in¬ terests include the Wabash, the Missouri Pacific, the Texas and Pacific and the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern. Gould married Edith Kingdon, a popular actress; they resided in New York City.

GOULD, Helen Miller. See Shepard, Helen Gould.

GOULD, Jay (1836-1892), an American capitalist, born at Roxbury, N. Y. He began active, life as a surveyor, and in 1856 he en¬ tered the tanning and lumber business. Later he bought railroad stocks, disposed of them at a great profit and in 1859 established himself as a broker in New York City. He gained control of the Erie Railroad when it was in financial distress, and constantly added to his railroad holdings, until he owned more than one-ninth the railroad mileage of the country (1880). His usual method was to depress the value of the stock in the open market, and then to buy quickly. In this way he secured control of the Union Pacific and the Missouri Pacific at a time when their stocks were almost worthless and developed them into paying roads. He was a prime mover in the consolidation of tele-

GOUNOD

1541

GOVERNMENT

G0UN01>

graph lines and in the founding of the West¬ ern Union Company. In 1869 he was in¬ terested with James Fisk in an attempt to ^^corner’^ the gold market. It resulted in ‘‘Black Friday/’ one of the most disastrous financial episodes in American history. He left a fortune estimated at $70,000,000.

GOUNOD, goo no% Charles FRANgois (1818-1893), a great French composer, born at Paris. He studied at the Paris Conserva¬ tory and afterward in Italy. His first im¬ portant mature work was Faust (1856), which raised him to a high rank among composers. Other operas followed, among which Romeo and Ju¬ liet (1867) is the best. Gounod’s study of church music during his stay in Rome emphasized the religious tenden¬ cies of his nature. To these he gave expres¬ sion in Saint Cecilia^s Mass and other sacred music. He wrote also a Messe Solennelle, a motet, Gallia, and other choral works and songs. Saint Cecilia’s Mass and the oratorios Redemption and Death and Life are master¬ pieces of musical technique and are sur¬ charged with deep, spiritual feeling.

GOURD, gord, or goord, the popular name for a family of plants, as well as for the typ¬ ical genus of that order. The gourd was first knowm in the Holy Land. The fruit of these plants is also known by the same name. The plants bear annual or peren¬ nial stems, trailing or climbing by tendrils, and large alternate leaves. The corolla is either yellow, white or green and sometimes is large and handsome. The fruit is fleshy and succulent. There are more than fifty genera and about 300 known species of gourds, many of which are useful or re¬ markable. Among them are the squash, the melon, the cucumber, the pumpkin, the col- ocynth and the bryony. They are natives of both hemispheres, chiefly within the tropics, but the more valuable ones are now com¬ monly cultivated in most parts of the world. On some species the outer coat, or rind, is so hard that bottles and water cups are made from the fruit.

GOUT, gowt, a constitutional disorder, giv¬ ing rise to paroxysms of acute pain, and ac¬ companied by a specific form of inflammation. It appears chiefly in the male sex and at¬ tacks occur at intervals. Gout is very often preceded by, or alternates with, disorder of the digestive organs. It seizes the patient usually at night, causing violent pains in the big toe or in the heel or calf of the leg. These pains last all night and are excru¬ ciating, especially if the patient moves or is jarred. A second night of pain is usually followed by sudden relief from pain, al¬ though swelling and fever remain in the limb. Similar attacks may occur at short intervals through a period of several weeks, or even months, the whole constituting what is commonly called a “fit of the gout.” It may be acquired or hereditary. In the former case it rarely appears before the age of thirty- five; in the latter, it is frequently observed earlier. It appears that the disease is due to an excess of uric acid in the blood. Indo¬ lence, inactivity and too free use of sour wines, fermented liquors and very highly seasoned and nitrogenous food are the prin¬ cipal causes. Strict regulation of the habits of life is one of the most important ele¬ ments in the treatment of gout.

Government is control,

rule, direction of affairs, applied particularly to a political division, as a city, county, state, prov¬ ince or nation. There have been many kinds of government. I n times past in many parts of the world one man’s will has decided the fate of ^ millions of his subjects, while elsewhere, in sharp contrast, the will of the majority has been supe¬ rior to the mandate of any man.

In 1776 the American Declaration of Independ¬ ence declared that governments derive their just powers “from the consent of the gov¬ erned.” At that time, in practice, this was true in but few countries ; but the statement was prophetic. Reforms have abolished autocratic rule and have substituted rule by the people. The event which finally banished government by might and by the sword was

GOVERNMENT

1542

GOVERNOR-GENERAL

the World War (1914-1919). That greatest conflict of all times was launched by a mili¬ tary aristocracy in the German Empire in¬ tent on extending its world influence, and in its design was assisted by the autocratic gov¬ ernments of Austria-Hungary and Turkey. Its conclusion guaranteed to all peoples the right to determine for themselves the nature of their governments.

To-day, with the exception of a few unen¬ lightened kingdoms in far comers of the earth, democracy finds its highest expression in well-ordered, mass-controlled governments.

Kinds of Government. The governments of the world may be classified as follows :

Democracy. This is a general term for a people who control their governmental af¬ fairs, regardless of the title of the executive head of the nation. England is a democracy, under a king who has little actual power; the United States, a republic, is also a democracy, under a President, as in France, Switzerland, and all the free countries of South America. In a democracy the people choose the men who exercise the authority the people themselves confer.

Pure Democracy. Imagine a country so small that all the people can meet in one place to make their laws and the same time choose the men who are to wield authority. This would be an example of pure democracy. The New England town-meeting Was an example of pure democracy, as is the town¬ ship to-day, in all matters relating solely to itself.

Republic. A republic is a vdemocracy so large that it cannot be a pure democracy. In such a country the people cannot all partici¬ pate in law-making, so they choose from their whole number certain men to represent them in a law-making body. These men act for all the people, and their mandates express tho people’s will. The people choose others from their numbers to enforce the laws; the chief executive is not an lioroditary officer, but is of limited term of office. He is usually called President. In a republic the lowliest citizen bears his share, though it may appear small, i tho responsibilities of government.

Monarchy. Monarchies have been of two kinds, absolute and limited. An absolute monarchy is a country in which the will of the ruler is the supreme law of the land. No man, no legislative body, has authority superior to his. Russia under its czars and Turkey under its sultans were for centuries examples of absolutism.

A limited monarchy is a country in which the will of the ruler to govern according to his fancy is curbed or limited by legislative bodies and executive officers deriving their powers from constitutions dictated by the people. The German Empire was a good ex¬ ample of a limited monarchy which chose to limit, but only in part, the will of its em¬

peror; England and the Scandinavian coun» tries are examples of the most enlightened limited monarchies.

Aristocracy, a government by a privileged class, usually nobles, in which the executive is not an hereditary ruler. An aristocracy might arise from the overthrow of the regu¬ larly constituted ruler by those powerful enough to accomplish their purpose.

Oligarchy, a country ruled by a group of people, nobles or commoners, who seize the reins of power to correct governmental abuses. The Cromwell period in English history is an example. This differs from an aristocracy only in this point: If the self- constituted rulers abuse their power and govern for their own personal interests such a government becomes an oligarchy.

Related Articles: For local government,

see the articles State; Province; County; Township; City; Commission Form of Gov¬ ernment, and references there given.

GOV'ERNOR, a device in machinery for maintaining a uniform velocity with a vary¬ ing resistance. A common form of steam en¬ gine governor consists of a pair of balls, sus¬ pended from a vertical shaft, kept in motion

GOVERNORS

a. The simplest form, called Watt’s governor; b, Proll’s; c, Spring governor.

by the engine. When the engine goes too fast, the balls fly farther asunder and depress the end of a lever, which partly shuts a throttle valve and diminishes the quantity of steam admitted into the cylinder ; and on the other hand, when the engine goes too slowly, the balls fall down toward the spindle and elevate the valve, thus increasing the quan¬ tity of steam admitted into the cylinder. By this device the quantity of steam admitted to the cylinder is proportioned to the resist¬ ance of the engine, and the velocity is kept constantly the same.

GOV'ERNOR-GEN'ERAL, the chief resi¬ dent official of the Dominion of Canada. The sovereign of Great Britain, George V, is the theoretical head of the government of Can¬ ada. He is the sovereign of Canada, just as he is the sovereign of England. As he is unable to be present in person he is repre¬ sented by a Governor-General. This official has double responsibilities, for he is at once

GOVERNOR-GENERAL

1543

GRACES

the governor of a great nation and the guar¬ dian of the imperial interests.

As the chief executive of Canada, the Gov¬ ernor-General assembles, prorogues, (that is, closes the session) and dissolves Parliament, and receives and assents to the bills in the name of His Majesty. In the discharge of all his executive duties he acts with the advice of the Privy Council, which in turn has the support of the majority in the House of Com¬ mons. On Canadian questions clearly within the jurisdiction of the Dominion he cannot act apart from his advisers, and is bound hy their advice. It is always as the “Governor- General in Council” that he acts, not as the Governor-General. His salary is $50,000 per year.

Officially, the Governor-General occupies a position of neutrality between opposing political parties. As he can have no possible object in view except to add to his own use¬ fulness and the dignity of his office, he is often in a position to aid the interests of the whole country. He is free to act as the best interests of all concerned seem to dictate. In this respect he enjoys considerable advan¬ tage over the President of the United States, who is necessarily a partisan and often driven to partisan measures. The initiative in legislation rests with the Ministry, but there are many occasions when the advice and help of the Governor-General are invalua¬ ble. The high character of the men who have held this office may be seen from the list below :

The Rig-ht Hon, Viscount Monck, K. C. M. a, 1867-1869.

The Rt. Hon. Lord Lisgar, G. C. M. G., 1869-1872.

The Rt. Hon. Earl of Dufferin, K. P., K. C.

B. , C. C. M. G., 1872-1878.

The Rt. Hon. Marquis of Lome (later Duke of Argyll), K. T.. G. C. M. G., P. C., 1878-1883.

The Most Hon. Marquis of Lansdowne, G.

C. M. G., 1883-1888.

The Rt. Hon. Lord Stanley, G. C. B., 1888- 1893.

The Rt. Hon. Earl of Aberdeen, K. T., G, C. M. G., 1893-1898.

The Rt. Hon. Earl of Minto, G. C, M. G., 1898-1904.

The Rt. Hon. Earl Grey, G. C. M. G., 1904- 1911.

H. R. H., Arthur William Patrick Albert, Duke of Connaught, K. G., K. T., K. P., etc., 1911-1917.

His Excellency, the Duke of Devonshire, Victor Christian William Cavendish, K, G., G. C. M. G., G. C. V. O., P. C., 1917—.

The Rt. Hon. Lord Julian Byng, Baron of Vimy, 1921 .

GOVERNOR’S ISLAND, an island in New York harbor, near the southern end of Manhattan Island. It belongs to the Federal government, and is used for naval and mil¬ itary purposes, being fortified by forts Jay, Castle William and South Battery.

GRACCHUS, grak'usy a distinguished Ro¬ man family, of which the following were the most prominent members: Tiberius Sem- PRONius Gracchus became consul in 177 b. c. and again in 163. He was the father of the two most celebrated Gracchi, Tiberius Sem- PRONius (about 163-133 b. c.) and Caius Sempronius (159-121 b. c.). In 133 b. c. Tiberius was elected to the tribuneship. His first efforts were to reform the Roman land system, by restoring or enforcing the old Li- cinian law, which provided that no one should possess more than five hundred acres of the public lands and that the remainder should be equally divided among the plebeians. By exerting all his prerogatives he managed to pass his bill, but was accused of having vio¬ lated his office, and at the next election for the tribuneship he was killed. Ten years after the death of Tiberius, the younger Gracchus obtained the tribuneship, renewed his brother’s law and revenged his memory by expelling from the city many of his most violent enemies. Several popular measures gained him great favor with the people, but the intrigues of the nobles ultimately caused his fall.

GRACE, Days of, a certain number of days, usually three, allowed for the payment of a bill or note after the day on which it becomes due. In some countries it varies from three to ten days. If the last day of grace is a bank holiday the instrument is payable on the next to the last day of grace. The custom of allowing days of grace has been abandoned almost entirely in the United States.

GRACES, gra'seZj in classical mythology, the goddesses of grace, daughters of Jupiter, from whom came everything beautiful and agreeable. According to most poets and mythologists, they were three in number, and Hesiod gives them the names of Aglaia (brilliancy), Thalia (the blooming) and Euphrosyne (mirth). Homer mentions them in the Iliad as attendants of Juno, but in the Odyssey they are spoken of as companions of Venus. He conceived them as forming a numerous troop of goddesses, whose office it was to render happy the days of the im-

GRACKLE

1544

GRAFTING

mortals. The three graces were usually rep¬ resented slightly draped or entirely nude, locked in each other’s embrace or hand in hand.

GRACKLE, grak'’l, a name applied in America to several kinds of blackbirds, among them the purple grackle, or crow- blackbird, which ranges throughout the cen¬ tral and eastern part of the United States and parts of Canada and Alaska. Many species of the same family are native to India and Europe. One of these, the Indian mina bird, can be taught to perform tricks and to imitate the human voice.

GRA'DY, Henry Woodein (1851-1889), one of the greatest editors the Southland of the United States has produced. He was born at Athens, Ga., and was educated at the University of Georgia and the University of Virginia. As editor and correspondent of various papers, he attracted attention for his articles on the South, and in 1882 he became managing editor and part owner of the At¬ lanta Constitution. He also won a reputa¬ tion as a public speaker, especially on the theme “The New South.”

GRAFTING, the art of propagating plants by inserting a bud or twig of one plant into the stock of another, in such a way that there results a circulation of sap between the parts united. The stem or branch into which the part is grafted is known as the stock, and the part inserted into the branch is called the cion; the new growth is called the graft. There are various methods of grafting, known as budding, whip grafting, cleft grafting and crown grafting.

Budding. In budding, the bud from the axil of a leaf is inserted into the bark of a stock. The bud is prepared by cutting a shield-shaped section of bark, which usu¬ ally includes a little of the wood, from the plant (see b in Fig. 1). A piece of the leaf stock is left on the bark, to serve as a handle in inserting the bud. The stock is prepared by cutting a T-shaped ^ slit in the bark {a, |L Fig. 1). The bark |1 is then loosened from I ji the corners where | ' these cuts meet, and IjjJ the bud is slipped a ^

under, being left in ^

such a position that it protrudes from the cut just below where the vertical and cross sections meet. The stock is then wound with

yarn or twine that will yield a little as the bud swells (c, Fig. 1). This method is used in the propagation of nearly all young fruit trees, and in the culture of many ornamental plants.

Whip Grafting. In whip grafting the cion and stock are cut so as to have notches and tongues that will exactly fit into each other {a and b, Fig. 2). The success of this style of grafting depends